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Скачать бесплатно! Научная работа на тему ECO-FRIENDLY ENGINE FOR THE ECONOMICAL LINER. Аудитория: ученые, педагоги, деятели науки, работники образования, студенты (18-50). Minsk, Belarus. Research paper. Agreement.

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Опубликовано в библиотеке: 2021-09-23
Источник: Science in Russia, №6, 2011, C.35-39

Scientific and technical peculiarities of gas turbine engine PD-14 for state-of-the-art national liner MS-21 (long-haul aircraft of the 21st century) developed by Ural designers and engineers was in the center of attention at a meeting of the Presidium of the RAS Ural Branch held on May 12, 2011, in Yekaterinburg. Science of Ural newspaper published a detailed report prepared by Alexander Inozemtsev, Chief Designer of OJSC Aircraft Engine (Perm)--the prime developer of this promising engine.


By the way, the Perm enterprise is a key element in the challenging project of the Scientific and Production Corporation Irkut (Irkutsk Region), which in early 2011 entered into a government contract for the development of MS-21 with the RF Ministry of Industry and


Trade. The program budget makes up RUR 190 bln. About 70 bln will be allocated by the state, the rest will be funded from other sources (to compare: development of the "hope of Russian aircraft industry" Sukhoi Superjet-100 cost RUR 42 bln). Funding of a new aircraft is scheduled for six years through the late 2016 when it is planned to bring the liner into commercial operation.


MS-21 will replace the old-timer of the national air fleet Tu-154 and get into competition with the foreign Airbus-A320 manufactured by the European consortium Airbus S.A.S. and Boeing-737, produced by the American company of the same name and dominating now in the national air transport industry. This liner is designed for routes up to 5,500 km long in all climatic

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zones, at any time of the day and night, in simple and severe weather conditions. Irkut experts state: technical level of this liner will significantly overcome all currently operating aircraft. The advanced technologies will improve its fuel efficiency by 25 percent and reduce operating expenses by 15 percent. Reduced air frame mass (owing to composite materials and promising metal alloys), on-board systems of a new generation and enhanced aerodynamic characteristics are among distinctive features of this liner. By the way, this project is a kind of revival of the national aircraft industry after the crisis of the 1990s when Russia lost its positions on the global market of civil aircraft.


According to Inozemtsev, development of the engine for such a plane--economic, reliable, with a long service life and sound ecological properties--had begun long before the said contract was signed--in 1999. Just then heads of national aircraft engine-building plants came to a decision on the necessity to design an engine with a power from 9 to 18 t. By 2003, when Moscow Experimental Design Bureau named after A. Yakovlev (today a part of the Irkut Corporation) won the MS-21 tender, the concept has already formed.


Inozemtsev reminds us: gas turbine engine PD-14 and other engines on its base are developed on the basis of a standardized highly efficient gas generator according to the classical configuration of a by-pass two-shaft engine without mixing external and inner flows. This engine is already the fifth generation and, according to the forecasts, can be distributed as an independent power unit, i.e. in addition to MS-21 it could be installed on SuperJet-100, Russian-Indian MTA, heavy aircraft 11-76, etc. In other words, it will likely become a good rival of Rolls-Royce and General Electric. In the long run, the national manufacturer is planning to take up to 10 percent of the global market in this high-tech sector. That is why Aircraft Engine placed stakes on the advanced technologies from the very beginning. This was not simple: after the collapse of the USSR, it took a lot of time for the national aircraft industry to start recovering: the industry was badly affected by loss of qualified specialists and technologies. Moreover, Inozemtsev pointed out to the restrictions imposed by the US Department of State on the export of technical innovations to Russia, and this problem will hardly be settled without the affiliation of Russia with the World Trade Organization. As a result, we have a possibility to buy only equipment; as for technologies, as well as materials, we are developing them independently.


According to Inozemtsev, at present none of the design bureaus or enterprises can develop a world-level engine all by itself. The whole world is integrating and cooperating, and Russia is not an exception. It is true that the concern managed to gather scientists from a number of Russian cities (Perm, Ufa, Moscow and Moscow Region) and attract tens of foreign companies.

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Moreover, the US branch of Irkut established in New-York employed first immigrants from the USSR and then American citizens free from trade secret obligations. The company's strategy is to design such gas generator (the "heart" of aircraft engine) that could be further used as a basis to develop the widest range of engines possible. And the Perm Design Bureau has a necessary base to meet the challenge. In particular, Inozemtsev gave the following example: one of the testing stands can register some thousands of technical parameters simultaneously that are processed by a computing cluster with a capacity of up to 6 Tflops. This enables to obtain important scientific results in a very short period of time.


As explained by the head of Aircraft Engine, "designers of the previous generation could not even dream of structural complexity of PD-14", since technical requirements to such assemblies are toughening year by year. For example, it is essential to take into account new approaches to the engine noise reduction (that is why European airports do not accept our Tu aircraft). One more thing: until now in the national aircraft industry there were employed only acoustic baffles on the exit of air stream, not noise reducing devices in the engine. This aspect will be taken into account in a new engine design. As for the problem of getting foreign bodies in turbines, according to the present-day requirements the engine "must" withstand a 8.5 kg bird (an albatross, for example) and keep working. It is not clear yet how to match these requirements with the micron tolerance of processing of turbine blades that are, in addition, hollow to reduce their mass. Alas, Inozemtsev stated, engineering acumen is not enough to get around the problem. Space technologies are also useless here as the rocket carrier operates for only some minutes, while aircraft equipment shall function for tens of thousands of hours. It was not by chance that Inozemtsev encouraged scientists of the RAS Ural Branch to actively cooperate with his enterprise. This will be of help to increase the number of proposed technical solutions and improve the accuracy of their choice, and, finally, will contribute to the success of the whole project.


By the way, production organization approaches at the Irkutsk aircraft plant where MS-21 will be automatically assembled have been significantly modified. The workshops are being equipped with technological innovations developed in the course of cooperation with the European company Airbus S.A.S. About 2,200 standards of the said company were introduced.


The liner will be manufactured in three modifications: for 150, 180 and 212 passengers. The standard flight range will be 3.5 thous. km, extended range -5.5 thous. km. According by the head of Aircraft Engine, long-distance and long-haul aircraft (up to 7 thous. km) are likely to make part of the product line. The pilot model of MS-21 will be assembled by the end of 2014,

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and by 2016 the aircraft is scheduled to get Russian and European certificates. After this compulsory procedure, a serial assembly of the liner will be commenced in Irkutsk. According to the expert opinion, the plant will be able to manufacture up to 84 planes a year.


The Malaysian leasing company Crecom is the first customer of the aircraft. In 2010, this company signed a contract for the supply of 50 liners with Irkut at the Farnborough Airshow (Great Britain). The aircraft of the 21st century has attracted more than 20 companies,

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including Russian Aeroflot and some other national companies of the "second echelon". MS-21 is also interesting for air carriers from the South-East Asia, Latin America and European Union. At present, the company has already formed a backlog of orders for 140 aircraft.


A. Inozemtsev, On the Aircraft Engines, Mining and Extension of Ural with Siberia, "Science of Ural", Nos 12-13, 2011

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Источник: Science in Russia, №6, 2011, C.35-39

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