М Ы   П Р Е Д О С Т А В Л Я Е М   Т О Л Ь К О    К А Ч Е С Т В Е Н Н У Ю   И Н Ф О Р М А Ц И Ю

Минская коллекция рефератов (www.library.by/shpargalka) Основана в 1999 году

Телефон минского офиса: 8(029)7777-***

ON/OFF: Всемирная коллекция рефератов: российское отделение >>>  Publications for English-speaking students >>> Publications for French-speaking students >>>  Publications for German-speaking students >>>      


Белорусская история
Белорусская литература
Белорусский язык
Белорусская культура
Английский язык
Биографии знаменитостей
Бухгалтерия и аудит
Военное дело
Иностранные языки
Маркетинг и реклама
Немецкий язык
Образование и обучение
Сельское хозяйство
МОСКОВСКАЯ коллекция
ЧАСТНЫЕ коллекции
ПОИСК рефератов

Заказать реферат\курсовую
Рефераты и книги на CD
Поиск информации

palette_zoom.gif (73 bytes)

Прислать реферат

palette_zoom.gif (73 bytes)

Vиртуальный Портфель
palette_zoom.gif (73 bytes) Доска почёта
palette_zoom.gif (73 bytes) Таблица Dискаунтов
+ О нас
+ Наша лицензия
+ Гарантия качества
+ Наши советы

"Шпаргалка" рекомендует...


SOURCE: library.by

Woman suffrage is the right of women to vote. Today, women in nearly all countries have the same voting rights as men. But they did not begin to gain such rights until the early 1900's, and they had to overcome strong opposition to get them. The men and women who supported the drive for woman suffrage were called suffragists.

In the United States

During colonial times, the right to vote was limited to adult males who owned property. Many people thought property owners had the strongest interest in good government and so were best qualified to make decisions. Most women could not vote, though some colonies gave the vote to widows who owned property.

By the mid-1700's, many colonial leaders were beginning to think that all citizens should have a voice in government. They expressed this belief in such slogans as "No Taxation Without Representation" and "Government by the Consent of the Governed."

After the United States became an independent nation, the Constitution gave the states the right to decide who could vote. One by one, the states abolished property requirements and, by 1830, all white male adults could vote. Only New Jersey gave women the vote, but in 1807, that state also limited voting rights to men.

Beginnings of the movement. Changing social conditions for women during the early 1800's, combined with the idea of equality, led to the birth of the woman suffrage movement. For example, women started to receive more education and to take part in reform movements, which involved them in politics. As a result, women started to ask why they were not also allowed to vote.

One of the first public appeals for woman suffrage came in 1848. Two reformers, Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, called a women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, N.Y., where Stanton lived. The men and women at the convention adopted a Declaration of Sentiments that called for women to have equal rights in education, property, voting, and other matters. The declaration, which used the Declaration of Independence as a model, said, "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal. ..."

Suffrage quickly became the chief goal of the women's rights movement. Leaders of the movement believed that if women had the vote, they could use it to gain other rights. But the suffragists faced strong opposition.

Most people who opposed woman suffrage believed that women were less intelligent and less able to make political decisions than men. Opponents argued that men could represent their wives better than the wives could represent themselves. Some people feared that women's participation in politics would lead to the end of family life.

Growth of the movement. The drive for woman suffrage gained strength after the passage of the 15th Amendment to the Constitution, which gave the vote to black men but not to any women. In 1869, suffragists formed two national organizations to work for the right to vote. One was the National Woman Suffrage Association, and the other was the American Woman Suffrage Association.

The National Woman Suffrage Association, led by Stanton and another suffragist named Susan B. Anthony, was the more radical of the two organizations. Its chief goal was an amendment to the Constitution giving women the vote. In 1872, Anthony and a group of women voted in the presidential election in Rochester, N.Y. She was arrested and fined for voting illegally. At her trial, which attracted nationwide attention, she made a stirring speech that ended with the slogan "Resistance to Tyranny Is Obedience to God."

The American Woman Suffrage Association, led by the suffragist Lucy Stone and her husband, Henry Blackwell, was more conservative. Its main goal was to induce individual states to give the vote to women. The two organizations united in 1890 to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union and other organizations also made woman suffrage a goal.

During the early 1900's, a new generation of leaders brought a fresh spirit to the woman suffrage movement. Some of them, including Carrie Chapman Catt and Maud Wood Park, were skilled organizers who received much of their support from middle-class women. These leaders stressed organizing in every congressional district and lobbying in the nation's capital. Other leaders, including Lucy Burns, Alice Paul, and Stanton's daughter Harriot E. Blatch, appealed to young people, radicals, and working-class women. This group of leaders devoted most of their efforts to marches, picketing, and other active forms of protest. Paul and her followers even chained themselves to the White House fence. The suffragists were often arrested and sent to jail, where many of them went on hunger strikes.

Action by individual states. In 1869, the Territory of Wyoming gave women the right to vote. The Utah Territory did so a year later. Wyoming entered the Union in 1890 and became the first state with woman suffrage. Colorado adopted woman suffrage in 1893, and Idaho in 1896. By 1920, 15 states--most of them in the West--had granted full voting privileges to women. Twelve other states allowed women to vote in presidential elections, and two states let them vote in primary elections.

The 19th Amendment. A woman suffrage amendment was first introduced in Congress in 1878. It failed to pass but was reintroduced in every session of Congress for the next 40 years.

During World War I (1914-1918), the contributions of women to the war effort increased support for a suffrage amendment. In 1918, the House of Representatives held another vote on the issue. Spectators packed the galleries, and several congressmen came to vote despite illness. One congressman was brought in on a stretcher. Representative Frederick C. Hicks of New York left his wife's deathbed--at her request--to vote for the amendment. The House approved the amendment, but the Senate defeated it. In 1919, the Senate finally passed the amendment and sent it to the states for approval.

By late August 1920, the required number of states had ratified what became the 19th Amendment. The amendment says, "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex."

In other countries

In 1893, New Zealand became the first nation to grant women full voting rights. In 1902, Australia gave women the right to vote in national elections. Other countries that enacted woman suffrage during the early 1900's included Britain, Canada, Finland, Germany, and Sweden. During the mid-1900's, China, France, India, Italy, Japan, and other nations gave women the right to vote. By 1990, women had the right to vote in almost every country where men had the right. Some countries still did not allow many or all of the people to vote. Only Kuwait extended the vote to men but not to women.

Contributor: Anne Firor Scott, Ph.D., W. K. Boyd Prof. of History Emerita, Duke Univ.; author, Making the Invisible Woman Visible.

Additional resources

Ford, Linda G. Iron-Jawed Angels. Univ. Pr. of Am., 1991. A study of the National Woman's Party.

Frost, Elizabeth, and Cullen-DuPont, Kathryn. Women's Suffrage in America. Facts on File, 1992.

Rakow, Lana F., and Kramarae, Cheris, eds. The Revolution in Words: Righting Women, 1868-1871. Routledge, 1990.

Smith, Betsy C. Women Win the Vote. Silver Burdett, 1989.

FEBRUARY, 27, 2003



Телефонная "горячая линия": 8 (029) 7777-***
SMS-оператор: +375297777***
Для жителей других стран: +375 (29) 7777-***
*****@library.by (оператор)
Мы работаем с 9:00 до 21:00

HIT.BY на Youtube

Официальный канал на Ютуби проекта HIT.BY

Здесь собраны ТОЛЬКО видео хиты из Минска, Гомеля, Могилева, Бреста, Гродно и Витебска!

Ежедневные топ-видео из Беларуси

Любовь по-белорусски!

Проект KAHANNE.COM! Быстрые знакомства в Минске, Гомеле, Бресте, Могилеве, Витебске, Гродно! Только реальные люди. Мобильная версия. Около 112.000 анкет белорусов.


Что происходит? Скандалы и расследования


Минская коллекция рефератов (old version) - дочерний проект при библиотеки LIBRARY.BY, бесплатная и постоянно пополняемая пользователями коллекция белорусских рефератов, белорусских дипломных работ, белорусских курсовых работ, белорусских контрольных, белорусских докладов и белорусских эссе. Работает с 1999 года.