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YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOTIATION

ИСТОЧНИК: СЛУЖБА ИНФОРМАЦИИ BELSONET

КАЧЕСТВО РАБОТЫ: 78%

 



Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) is one of the largest nonprofit voluntary organizations in the world. It serves about 25 million members in more than 90 countries. The World Alliance of YMCA's, an international YMCA organization, has headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.

In the United States, about 13 million people participate annually at over 2,000 local YMCA branches, units, camps, and centers. Membership and services are open to people of all ages, religions, races, and incomes. Women and girls make up about 45 per cent of those involved in the YMCA. About half of those served are under the age of 18.

All YMCA branches share the same basic goals. These goals are: (1) promoting healthy lifestyles, (2) strengthening the modern family, (3) developing leadership qualities in youth, (4) increasing international understanding, and (5) assisting in community development.

The association promotes its values through a variety of programs, such as health and fitness programs, child care, senior citizens' activities, and international education and exchange. Some YMCA's have residential and hotel facilities. YMCA's also offer employment, adventure, and leadership programs for teen-agers. The YMCA sponsors programs to fight juvenile delinquency. Other activities include refugee resettlement programs and educational programs for the disabled.

Volunteer board members from the local community control each individual YMCA. The national headquarters, called the YMCA of the USA, works closely with local YMCA's to discover successful program ideas at the local level and spread these ideas nationally. The YMCA of the USA has national offices in Chicago. It publishes a bimonthly magazine, Discovery YMCA.

In Canada, more than 70 YMCA's provide programs for about 300 communities throughout the country. More than a million persons, almost half of whom are women and girls, take part in these programs. Most Canadian YMCA's provide programs in six areas: (1) adult education, (2) camping and outdoor education, (3) community and youth services, (4) guidance and counseling, (5) health and physical education, and (6) institutional services, such as residences and cafeterias.

Each YMCA is managed by its own board of directors or governors. In 1912, the existing YMCA's established the National Council of YMCA's of Canada in order to help individual YMCA's achieve their goals through collective action. The council's main office is in Toronto.

History. The YMCA was founded in London in 1844 by a young British clerk named George Williams. Williams wanted to provide young clothing store clerks from the countryside with a place in London where they could read the Bible, relax, and find out about decent lodging. The YMCA movement traveled overseas to the United States and Canada in 1851. In that year, Thomas Sullivan, a missionary and retired sea captain, founded a YMCA in Boston. A group of young men formed a YMCA in Montreal at the same time.

Exercise and gymnastics became part of the American YMCA in the second half of the 1850's. The first YMCA swimming pool opened in Brooklyn, N.Y., in 1856. In 1891, a physical education instructor named James Naismith invented the game of basketball at the School for Christian Workers (now Springfield College) in Springfield, Mass. The school was associated with the YMCA. The original teams had nine players and used peach baskets as goals. In 1895, another physical education instructor, W. G. Morgan, invented volleyball at the Mount Holyoke, Mass., YMCA because he believed that basketball was too strenuous for businessmen.

The San Francisco YMCA admitted the association's first women members in 1874. The YMCA introduced the ideas of night school and junior college. It also assisted with the formation of other major voluntary groups, such as Boy Scouts, Camp Fire Boys and Girls, and the United Service Organizations (USO).

Critically reviewed by the YMCA of the USA

РАБОТА ДОБАВЛЕНА В АРХИВ: 7 ОКТЯБРЯ 2001

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Минская коллекция рефератов (old version) - дочерний проект при библиотеки LIBRARY.BY, бесплатная и постоянно пополняемая пользователями коллекция белорусских рефератов, белорусских дипломных работ, белорусских курсовых работ, белорусских контрольных, белорусских докладов и белорусских эссе. Работает с 1999 года.