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131 за 24 часа

April 2007 - the Institute of Applied Physics (IAP) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) in Nizhni Novgorod turned thirty. IAP is a leading academic institution in our country. It was established on the basis of divisions of the Radiophysics Institute. Academician Andrei Gaponov-Grekhov was appointed its director. In 2003, IAP came to be headed by an expert in the area of plasma physics, RAS corresponding member Alexander Litvak (since 2006 - full RAS member), while his predecessor became research supervisor of the Institute.


Creation of IAP is the natural continuation of rapid (starting with the 1930s) establishment and development of radiophysics and radioelectronics in Nizhni Novgorod. The most important milestones in its life were the opening of the Radiophysical Department, this country's first, at Gorky State University in 1945, and of the Scientific Research Radio-physical Institute in 1956, which provided for the training of specialists and research in physical and quantum electronics, RF electrodynamics, radiowave propagation, plasma physics, acoustics, hydro-physics. The potential of such "cross" co-operation was then used fully at IAP.


For example, millimeter-wave transmitters - gyrotrons - created here are widely used in controlled thermonuclear fusion plants. Technologies in plasma chemistry and processing of materials, and others are developed on their basis. The works to increase the power of microwave radiation sources provided a groundwork for a novel scientific direction - microwave relativistic electronics. Pioneer research in the area of nonlinear acoustics produced high-sensitivity methods of nondestructive check and flaw detection, in the area of low-frequency underwater acoustics - of unique radiating and receiving complexes for remote surveying of ocean in the sphere of nonlinear optics - to creation of femsecond laser complexes of subpetawatt level capacity.


Now research at IAP is concentrated in three divisions - that of Plasma Physics and High-Power Electronics; that of Hydrophysics and Underwater Acoustics; and that of Nonlinear Dynamics and Optics. The Institute has a solid experimental base and pilot production equipped with modern facilities. A number of plants and stands are integrated into the Center for Joint Use "Wave and Quantum Technologies", which was supported by the state. To bring the results of research to workable specimens and prototypes, developments of high technologies, a "belt" of associated small businesses has been set up.


Today about 460 researchers (more than a third of them under 40), including 4 full and 4 corresponding members of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 57 Doctors of Sciences and 195 Candidates of Sciences work at IAP. The Institute has often won government and science prizes, including a Lenin Prize, fourteen State Prizes of the RF Government, a RAS M. V. Lomonosov Great Gold Medal.


From the very start IAP has been attaching particular attention to research personnel training. For this purpose a multilevel system of continuous "all-through" education has been launched: specialized classes at the physics and maths lyceum; the department at Nizhni Novgorod State University. About 40 are enrolled in the intramural postgraduate study school of the Institute every year. To coordinate systematic work, the RAS Scientific and Educational Center (as IAP Division) was opened here in 2000 in keeping with the decision of the RAS Presidium. Annually summer physical and mathematical schools for bright children take place on the grounds of the children's fitness center and recreation center. Research schools headed by Acad. Vladimir Zheleznyakov, Alexander Litvak, Vladimir Talanov, RAS Corresponding Members Vitaly Zverev and Alexander Sergeyev are doing a great deal in rearing young scientists. Recently 11 series of works have been awarded RAS medals for young scientists.


The articles in this issue of our magazine highlight IAP research trends and areas.


Опубликовано 25 сентября 2018 года

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