1108500474,


: 15 2005
: LIBRARY.BY ( : BY-1108500474)
:


. . ѧާڧ



֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ڧݧڧ

ӧߧ ܧߧѧߧܧ ӧڧ ԧݧҧܧڧ էܧڧӧߧ ڧߧ֧֧ ڧڧ ڧڧڧ ߧѧէڧݧ էѧߧ ݧѧէߧ ֧֧ߧڧ ާߧԧڧ է֧ڧݧ֧ڧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ڧݧڧ ާ֧էݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧݧ֧ާѧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ. ֧, ٧է֧, ܧߧ֧ߧ, ߧ ѧ٧ѧҧѧߧߧ ҧݧ֧ާѧڧܧ ѧߧӧ ڧݧڧ, ߧ ߧ֧֧էӧ֧ߧߧ ҧѧ֧ߧڧ ڧߧ֧֧ ڧݧڧ ҧݧ֧ާѧڧܧ ԧѧߧڧߧ, ާ֧اէڧڧݧڧߧѧߧ, է ݧ֧էߧ֧ԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ާѧԧڧߧѧݧߧ. ҧڧߧ ҧݧѧ ڧݧڧ ڧڧ ӧ֧ӧ (, ܧ֧, ߧڧܧѧ ߧ ӧ֧ӧ) "֧ߧ" ܧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ, ܧ ҧӧէ ݧӧߧ ߧܧڧ ҧݧѧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ڧݧڧ (ڧݧ ڧݧڧ) ԧ֧ԧѧڧ. ֧ӧӧѧߧڧ ԧ֧ڧݧڧ ߧѧާ ӧ٧ѧߧ ٧է֧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧާ ڧߧӧ֧ܧڧӧѧާ ٧ѧڧߧ֧֧ӧѧߧߧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧ֧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ.

էѧݧߧڧ էէѧ ڧݧܧާ ާݧ֧ߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ ߧѧէ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ާڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧ֧ڧ ӧ֧ߧڧ ٧֧ާߧԧ ѧߧӧ, ѧߧ, ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ѧҧ ڧ ݧڧѧէ[1]. ߧڧާѧߧڧ ԧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧ ҧݧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧ ߧ ӧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧߧ ާ֧ѧߧڧ٧ާ ֧ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ߧ֧ҧ֧ߧ ާڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧ݧڧԧڧ٧ߧ ѧ֧ڧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧ ާէ֧ݧ ӧ֧ߧڧ ٧֧ާߧԧ ѧߧӧ. ֧ӧߧڧ ԧէܧڧ ܧݧ, ߧѧڧާ֧, ѧӧڧݧ, ԧѧߧڧ٧ӧӧѧݧ ӧ ֧ڧڧ ӧ֧ӧڧ ӧڧާ ֧ݧڧԧڧ٧ߧާ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧާ[2]. "...ӧܧѧ ֧ڧڧ, ٧ѧߧѧ ֧ݧ اڧӧѧߧڧ ߧ ߧ֧ ڧݧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ֧ ܧѧ֧ӧ "اڧ٧ߧ֧ߧߧԧ ѧߧӧ", ֧էӧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ֧ӧѧѧ֧ ڧ "ѧ" "ܧާ", ֧էӧ ڧѧݧ ֧ ڧէѧ֧ ߧ֧ܧѧ "ާ", ҧݧѧԧէѧ ܧ ߧ ѧߧӧڧ ֧ѧݧߧ"[3]. ާ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ ާڧܧԧ ѧߧӧ ڧѧݧڧ ߧ ӧ֧ӧڧ ާ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ ѧߧӧ ѧܧѧݧߧԧ, ֧ӧӧѧݧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ѧߧާѧڧ ާڧܧԧ ѧߧӧ ѧߧӧ ѧߧ֧ߧէ֧ߧߧ ("֧ߧ")[4]. է֧ ާ ߧѧҧݧէѧ֧ ܧѧ ҧ էҧߧ ݧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ާڧݧԧ-֧ݧڧԧڧӧ֧է֧ܧڧ էڧ. ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ӧѧ֧ էѧߧߧ ݧѧ ܧѧ "էߧ ܧݧڧ", ܧ ާ֧ߧ֧ ӧ ܧߧڧԧѧڧ ٧ѧӧڧڧާ ѧܧѧݧߧ ާڧݧԧڧ֧ܧ "ܧѧܧ" ѧӧ ԧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ܧ֧ڧާ֧ߧ (֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ڧ֧ާ ֧ݧڧԧڧ٧ߧ ڧݧ ާڧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ). ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ܧѧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ѧ֧ڧ C ާڧߧڧާѧݧߧ ߧ֧ҧէڧާѧ ӧڧ٧ڧߧ֧ܧѧ ٧ڧڧ, ܧѧ ҧݧѧԧڧӧ֧ էѧݧߧ֧֧ۧާ ӧڧӧӧѧߧڧ, ܧߧڧӧѧߧڧ, "ӧӧҧاէ֧ߧڧ" ֧ԧ ܧѧ ֧էާ֧ ӧ٧ާاߧԧ ڧݧܧԧ ڧߧ֧֧.

٧ӧ֧ߧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ѧߧ ѧݧ "ڧܧ ѧߧӧ"[5] ٧ѧߧݧ ܧѧڧߧ ڧߧ֧֧֧ԧ ߧѧ ާ֧էݧԧڧ֧ܧԧ ݧ. ߧ ѧߧѧݧڧ ӧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧݧڧ ڧѧߧѧݧڧڧ֧ܧ ֧ߧާ֧ߧݧԧڧ֧ܧ ܧߧ֧ܧ ٧ӧݧڧ "ӧڧ" ֧ߧ ֧ڧڧ֧ܧ է ڧ ߧ֧ߧ էݧ ާ֧էݧԧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ ѧߧӧ էާ, ѧߧӧ "ڧ֧ߧߧ" ҧݧҧӧѧߧߧ ާ֧. ߧ, ܧѧ ѧӧڧݧ, ӧѧէѧݧ ڧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧѧݧڧ٧ ѧާѧڧӧѧݧڧ -֧ڧާ֧ӧ ܧѧ ڧէߧѧ ܧ ڧݧ ҧѧ էݧ էѧݧߧ֧ۧڧ ֧֧ڧ֧ܧڧ ާ֧էݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧ߧڧ. ٧ѧѧߧ֧ ٧ѧէѧߧߧ ѧݧ ԧѧߧڧ֧ߧڧ, ڧ֧ߧڧӧѧߧߧ ڧާ֧ߧߧ ߧ "ڧܧ" ܧѧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ اѧߧ ڧݧܧԧ ӧڧէ֧ߧڧ ٧ڧݧ ٧ߧѧڧާ ֧ԧ ѧҧ. "֧֧" ֧ԧ ڧѧߧѧݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧҧ, ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧߧ ߧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ܧݧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ߧѧڧݧܧڧ ڧڧ (ӧէ, ԧߧ), ٧ѧ֧ӧѧ ݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ݧ֧ާ֧ߧ, ܧ, ߧ֧ާߧ֧ߧߧ, ڧӧ֧ "ڧܧ ѧߧӧ". ڧݧڧ, ֧ӧ, ܧѧ٧ѧݧѧ ֧ ֧ӧ "ާ֧ا֧ӧ ܧѧާߧ֧", ӧ٧ݧ ܧԧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ѧާ ܧѧ٧ѧݧ ֧էާ֧ ߧ֧֧էӧ֧ߧߧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ڧߧ֧֧. ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ܧѧ ҧ ٧ѧڧߧ֧֧ӧѧݧ ѧާ ҧ.

ѧݧߧ֧ۧڧ ڧ ҧݧѧ ӧ٧ѧ, ߧ֧ާߧ֧ߧߧ, ڧާ֧ߧѧާ ڧ֧ݧ ܧ, ڧݧ ֧ݧ֧٧ ֧ݧڧܧ ӧѧѧ. ܧ ӧ֧ ڧܧߧӧ֧ߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ާݧ, էѧ 1976 ԧէ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ڧߧ֧ӧ ѧߧ٧ܧާ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧާ اߧѧݧ "֧է"[6], ݧ ԧ ާݧڧӧѧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ӧ ާ اߧѧݧ[7]. ݧ֧է֧ ާ֧ڧ, ҧݧ, -ӧڧէڧާާ, էߧ ڧ ֧ӧ ڧݧӧӧѧߧڧ, ܧѧ ӧݧݧѧ ӧ֧ ߧ ާ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ "٧ѧܧѧ". ֧٧ݧѧ ڧߧ֧ӧ ڧݧݧڧ֧ ٧ѧܧݧڧ֧ݧߧѧ ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ڧݧ ("La gographie doit bien tre an coeur de ce dont je m'occupe")[8]. ݧߧ ֧ӧڧէߧ, ѧܧѧ ٧ڧڧ էڧܧӧѧݧ ԧ ڧ֧ߧڧӧѧߧߧ ܧ ٧֧ߧڧ C ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ݧѧ ߧ ڧߧ ܧѧ ݧ֧էӧڧ ֧ݧ֧ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧߧ ާݧ֧ߧߧ ڧݧ ڧݧܧڧ ڧݧڧ, ܧ ܧѧ ҧ ߧ֧֧էӧ֧ߧߧ "ӧڧ" ҧܧӧѧݧߧ اѧ, ާڧ ֧ԧ ӧܧ ֧ҧ. ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ѧߧӧڧ ܧѧ ҧ ֧ߧѧݧߧ, ֧ߧ ާا֧ ߧߧ ֧֧ާ֧ѧ. ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ ܧѧ ѧݧߧ-ާ֧ߧѧݧߧ, ܧߧܧ֧ߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧէڧߧѧ ֧ ݧڧ էܧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ڧ֧ߧڧӧѧߧߧ ާݧ. ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ֧֧ݧ, ֧ӧѧڧݧ ѧާ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ C ާ֧, ܧѧܧ ߧ ߧ֧ҧէڧާ էݧ ӧ֧ԧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ ߧܧڧߧڧӧѧߧڧ.

ݧ֧էӧڧ ٧ڧڧ ܧ ѧߧާڧӧѧݧѧ. ٧էߧ֧֧ۧ ڧߧ֧ӧ "ѧߧӧ, ٧ߧѧߧڧ ӧݧѧ" (1982) ѧ֧ݧݧڧӧѧ ߧѧڧѧߧڧ ڧ ܧߧڧԧ "ݧӧ ӧ֧" ӧ֧اէѧ, ѧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ "ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧԧ֧ߧߧ" ܧߧ֧ ( ֧ ӧ֧اէ֧ߧڧ ݧ, ӧ٧ѧߧߧ ֧ҧݧ֧ߧڧ֧ ݧӧ "ѧߧӧ") ӧ٧ѧߧ ѧާڧ է֧اѧߧڧ֧ ܧߧڧԧ. ڧݧ ڧѧ, ߧ ڧߧ ܧѧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ ާ֧ѧ[9]. ѧߧӧ ڧݧܧԧ ҧݧ ڧѧӧߧ֧ߧ ڧ, ѧܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ѧߧӧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧާ, ѧާ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ާԧݧ ӧѧ ݧڧ ܧѧ ԧ ߧܧڧߧѧݧߧ, ֧ڧѧݧڧ٧ڧӧѧߧߧ, ֧ڧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ֧ݧӧ֧֧ܧ է֧֧ݧߧ. ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ, ѧߧӧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ӧݧѧ ߧ֧ӧ٧ާاߧ ӧѧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ, ܧ ߧ ާڧӧѧߧ; էߧ ا. ֧ڧڧѧݧߧѧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ ѧߧڧ XVII-XVIII ӧ֧ܧ, ާߧ֧ߧڧ ܧ, ӧ֧اէѧ֧ ֧ԧ ާݧ. էߧѧܧ ӧ֧اէѧ, ԧէ ԧѧߧڧ٧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ ѧߧӧ, ѧާ ԧէѧӧ էҧݧ ԧާߧާ ԧէ[10]. ݧѧ ܧ ܧѧߧڧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ ާ֧ѧ ߧ ѧާ է֧ݧ ڧӧ֧ݧ ާ, ѧާ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ֧ӧѧڧݧ ӧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ާ֧ѧ, ѧݧ اէ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ֧. ҧѧ ֧էڧߧԧ ֧اէ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ ѧ٧էҧڧݧ, ѧԧާ֧ߧڧӧѧݧ ߧ ާߧا֧ӧ ا֧ܧڧ, "ݧا֧ҧߧ" ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ ҧѧ٧, ܧ ާڧ ާ٧ѧڧܧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧԧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ. ڧ٧ݧ ӧ֧ҧѧ٧ߧѧ ڧާݧѧߧѧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ ܧѧ ֧էާ֧ ڧݧӧӧѧߧڧ ֧ ԧѧ٧է ҧݧ֧ ڧܧԧ ާ֧ߧѧݧߧԧ ڧܧ, ܧ ߧ ѧݧ ߧ֧֧էӧ֧ߧߧ էڧ֧ ާݧ. ѧާ ާݧ ѧݧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ, ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ӧݧ֧ߧڧ֧ ڧݧ, ܧѧۧߧ֧ ާ֧, ٧ߧѧݧ ֧ҧ ѧܧӧ.

ݧ֧ اߧ ܧѧ ҧ ҧݧ֧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ "ѧ֧ߧߧ", ѧ֧է֧ߧߧ ҧݧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ֧ݧ֧٧ ӧѧѧ "ڧ٧ާ"[11]. ڧ٧ާѧڧ֧ܧѧ ܧ, էҧߧ ڧѧߧߧѧ ڧߧ֧֧ڧӧѧߧߧѧ ѧӧѧާ ߧ է ڧާ֧, ܧѧ ߧ֧ݧ٧ ݧ ӧ֧ѧݧ ֧ҧߧ "ߧ֧ߧѧا֧ߧߧԧ" ڧݧܧԧ ާݧ֧ߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ. ӧ֧ ӧڧէڧާ, ҧѧ ڧ٧ާ ѧ ֧ҧ ڧէ֧ѧݧߧ ӧڧ٧ӧէڧ ܧѧ ҧ ߧ֧ߧѧا֧ߧߧ "էѧ֧" ѧߧӧ; ѧߧӧ, ܧ ߧ ֧ާڧ ֧ߧڧӧѧ, էڧ֧֧ߧڧӧѧ ڧݧ ѧӧާѧڧ֧ܧ ڧ֧ѧڧ٧ڧӧѧ. ڧߧڧڧѧݧߧ ӧѧاߧ ڧާ֧ ѧߧӧ ѧ֧ߧڧߧԧ ߧ֧ڧ֧ѧڧ٧ڧӧѧߧߧԧ, ѧާԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ ٧ѧܧݧѧ֧ ӧڧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ; ڧ٧ާ C ڧ֧ާ ҧ֧ ѧާ[12]. ֧ӧ, էҧݧ֧ߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ ڧ٧ާ ٧ӧݧ֧ ѧӧާѧڧ֧ܧ ڧ٧ҧ֧اѧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ڧݧܧڧ ߧѧا֧, ܧ ӧ٧ѧߧ ֧ݧ֧ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧߧާ ڧߧ֧֧ѧڧާ ӧݧ֧ߧڧ, ҧݧѧէѧڧ ӧߧާ ڧݧ ֧ܧ ӧѧا֧ߧߧާ ֧ڧڧѧݧߧާ ܧѧާ. ڧݧӧӧѧߧڧ ҧ֧ѧ֧ ٧է֧ ӧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ "ѧݧڧҧ", ܧ ٧ӧݧ֧ ܧѧ ҧ ҧ֧٧ߧѧܧѧ٧ѧߧߧ ڧԧѧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧާ ҧѧ٧ѧާ ֧ѧݧߧ, ѧާ ֧ѧݧߧ ڧݧܧ էڧܧ ѧߧӧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ad hoc.

ݧ֧էߧ ӧާ֧ߧѧ ѧҧ . ֧ݧ֧٧ . ӧѧѧ " ѧܧ ڧݧڧ?" (1991)[13] ܧѧ٧ѧݧ, ڧݧڧ ѧܧڧӧߧ ާݧ֧ ߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ , ҧݧ֧ ԧ, ѧ֧ ߧѧѧڧӧѧ ӧ "ҧ֧" ܧѧ ҧ ٧ ֧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ. էӧڧߧ ڧާ ާݧڧ֧ݧާ ߧڧ ԧ֧ڧݧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧӧѧ֧ ߧ ߧӧ ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ ҧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ C ٧֧ާݧ ֧ڧڧ: "ݧ C ߧ ߧڧ, ߧѧߧѧ ާ֧اէ ҧ֧ܧ ҧ֧ܧ, ߧ ӧѧ֧ߧڧ ֧ӧԧ ӧܧ ӧԧ. ݧ ֧ӧݧ֧ ܧ֧ ֧֧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ֧ڧڧ ٧֧ާݧ"[14]. ӧ ֧ ֧է֧ݧ ڧ ߧ֧ߧڧ C ֧ է֧֧ڧڧѧݧڧ٧ѧڧ (ܧڧ ֧ڧڧ ӧӧߧ, ֧ڧڧ ٧֧ާݧ) ֧ ֧֧ڧڧѧݧڧ٧ѧڧ ( ٧֧ާݧ ֧ڧڧ, ӧѧߧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ֧ڧڧ ֧֧ ٧֧ާݧ). ާ֧ߧߧ ܧѧ ҧ ֧֧էߧ ٧ߧ ާ֧اէ ڧݧڧ֧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ ٧ӧݧ ԧӧڧ ڧԧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧӧ C ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧӧ. ݧ ާڧ֧, "ާ֧" ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧӧ ѧߧӧڧ, , ާ ԧ ѧߧӧ; ڧߧѧ: ڧէڧ "ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ݧا֧ߧڧ" ާݧ. "ԧ֧ԧѧڧ ߧ էѧ֧ ާѧ֧ڧ ֧֧ާ֧ߧߧ ާ֧ߧ֧ էݧ ڧڧ ܧѧ ާ. էҧߧ ֧ۧ٧ѧا, ߧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ߧ ݧܧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ ڧէ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ, ߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ ާ"[15].

ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ڧۧܧ ڧݧӧӧѧߧڧ " ߧ" ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ ӧ٧ѧߧ, ֧ӧ ֧֧է, ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧާ . . էԧ. ܧߧڧԧ "ѧا֧ߧڧ ާ. ѧߧէѧߧ ާڧ ڧݧڧ" (1995) ֧ާ էѧݧ ߧ ڧާ֧ ӧ֧ӧ ڧܧ֧ԧ, ڧ, ѧۧէ֧ԧԧ֧ ܧѧ٧ѧ ݧ ٧ߧѧڧާ ܧߧܧ֧ߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ѧߧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧݧܧڧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ. ҧ֧ߧߧ ӧѧاߧ ާݧ֧ߧڧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧ֧ ԧѧߧڧߧ, ݧڧާڧߧѧݧߧ ѧߧ, ڧݧ ѧߧӧ-ߧ-ԧѧߧڧ C ֧ ܧ ֧ ܧѧۧߧ ݧѧҧ ڧѧߧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ܧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧ ֧ߧ ڧݧߧ ڧާݧڧ ѧާ ڧݧӧӧѧߧڧ, էѧا ܧѧܧ- ֧֧ߧ ֧է֧ݧ ѧާ ֧ԧ ܧ. ѧ, ݧѧ ڧܧ֧ԧ ҧѧ ݧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧ ڧߧ֧֧, ߧ ڧާ֧ߧߧ ѧߧӧ-ߧ-ԧѧߧڧ, ާ֧اէ ߧ֧ߧڧ ߧ֧ߧߧڧ; ѧާ ԧѧߧڧ "...ܧѧ ҧ ѧݧ, էڧ٧ڧ, ܧӧѧ ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ާ, ߧѧҧ.", ڧߧ֧֧ "...ӧݧ֧ ۧڧӧ ҧѧ٧ էڧ٧ڧ ߧ֧ߧ֧ԧ ӧ ߧ֧ߧߧ֧"[16]. ݧ֧ߧڧ ڧܧ֧ԧ ڧҧ֧ѧ֧ ֧ ܧ٧ڧ֧ߧڧѧݧߧ ܧѧԧѧڧ, اէѧ֧ާ ڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧӧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧ ߧ ӧާ֧ڧާ. ڧ ѧ ާѧѧ ܧ٧ڧ֧ߧڧ ާݧڧ֧ݧ, ܧ ٧ѧէѧ֧ ӧ٧ާاߧ էҧߧԧ ܧѧԧѧڧӧѧߧڧ ާݧ, ٧ӧݧ֧ ӧէڧ ֧ѧڧ էҧݧڧӧѧߧڧ ڧݧ ӧާ֧֧ߧڧ ڧ ѧߧ[17]. ֧ҧڧԧѧڧ ӧ֧ӧ ڧ ާݧ ֧ ҧݧ֧ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧߧ. ߧ ֧ӧ ֧է֧ߧ ݧߧ ֧է֧ݧѧ ݧڧާڧߧѧݧߧ ѧߧ, ܧ ֧է֧ݧ ѧӧ ߧ ܧѧ ާѧԧڧߧѧݧߧ, ߧ ܧѧ ާ֧اߧ, ߧ֧ۧѧݧߧ, ߧ ٧ѧߧڧާѧڧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ٧ڧڧ ֧ߧ[18]. ڧݧӧӧѧߧڧ ا ѧۧէ֧ԧԧ֧ ߧ֧ӧ٧ާاߧ ӧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ, ܧݧ֧ӧ ߧڧ ֧ԧ ڧݧӧӧѧߧڧ C Dasein C ڧ٧ߧѧѧݧߧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ: "...֧ݧӧ֧ ߧ֧է֧ݧڧ "ӧ֧ԧ" ѧߧӧ, ֧ӧӧѧߧڧ ֧ԧ ܧѧ֧ӧ Dasein "ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ"[19]. ݧ ѧۧէ֧ԧԧ֧ ߧ ֧-ڧ, ߧ ڧӧڧ ݧѧߧէѧ, ߧ ڧѧߧ ֧ާ; ߧ ݧѧߧէѧߧ. ѧܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ӧ ڧݧڧ ާݧ ٧ߧѧѧ ߧ ڧߧ ܧѧ ܧݧѧէӧѧߧڧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ݧѧߧէѧ; ҧѧ ݧѧߧէѧ اէѧ֧ ܧ ѧާ ާݧ[20].

ѧҧ . . էԧ ٧ߧѧѧݧ ڧߧڧڧѧݧߧ ӧ, ѧߧ֧ ߧ ٧ѧާ֧ߧ, ڧߧ֧֧֧ ߧѧ ҧݧ֧ާѧڧܧ. ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ܧѧ٧ѧݧ ӧѧاߧ ԧѧߧڧߧ ݧӧڧ֧ ѧާԧ ڧݧӧӧѧߧڧ, ٧ѧѧ ܧѧ ҧ ֧ԧ "ԧ֧֧". ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ܧѧ ҧ ߧڧ٧ӧѧ ܧ ڧݧӧӧѧߧڧ ֧է֧ݧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧ ڧ ֧ܧڧӧߧ. ѧߧӧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧, էѧߧߧ ݧѧ اէ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ѧާާ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧާ ѧߧӧ, ӧڧݧ ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ݧ֧ ڧݧ ܧߧ֧ܧ ݧҧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ֧ߧڧѧݧߧ էܧڧӧߧ, ڧ֧ߧڧӧѧߧߧ ߧ ֧ҧ, ާݧ. ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧѧ ާ ڧݧӧӧѧߧڧ է֧ݧѧݧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ܧѧ ҧ ѧݧߧ "ާݧڧӧѧߧڧ", "ѧߧӧݧ֧ߧڧ" ѧާԧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ. ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ާݧڧݧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ, ѧէ֧ܧӧѧߧ ҧѧߧԧ էӧڧا֧ߧڧ ҧ֧֧ڧӧѧݧ ܧѧ ѧ ڧӧߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧߧ ֧էէ֧ԧ.

ѧڧҧݧ֧ էܧڧӧߧ ѧݧ ݧڧߧڧ ڧݧӧӧѧߧڧ, ܧѧ ҧݧ ӧ٧ѧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧާ ҧѧ٧ѧާ էӧڧا֧ߧڧ, էڧߧѧާڧܧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ. ֧֧ӧڧ ܧѧ ӧ֧ڧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧާ٧ߧѧߧڧ էߧӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ܧѧ ܧѧۧߧ ڧݧߧѧ ٧ڧڧ "ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ" ڧ֧ߧڧӧѧߧߧԧ ڧݧӧӧѧߧڧ ڧӧݧ֧ܧݧ ֧֧٧ߧ ӧߧڧާѧߧڧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧ֧[21]. ֧ӧ ݧѧ (ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ڧܧ ѧߧӧڧ ӧ֧ӧ . . ѧߧէ֧ݧѧާ) ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ֧ԧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧ ڧѧ (էڧߧѧާڧߧ ݧѧߧէѧߧ ҧѧ٧) ѧݧ ӧѧا֧ߧڧ֧ ܧӧ֧ߧߧ ܧѧߧڧ "ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ԧ", "է֧ӧߧԧ" ѧߧӧ[22]. "ҧ ѧѧܧ֧ ا֧ߧڧ ֧ѧݧߧԧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ԧ ѧߧӧ, ڧܧӧ ӧӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ԧ ӧ ߧ, ٧էѧߧڧ ӧ֧ԧ "٧ܧ ѧߧӧ" ѧӧݧ ݧѧߧէѧߧ ڧܧ ѧߧէ֧ݧѧާ"[23]. ާڧ ӧ֧ҧѧ٧ߧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ ڧ֧ާ, ܧ ٧ѧէѧ ڧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ѧާԧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ ԧݧѧڧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧڧާ ѧߧӧܧѧާ ֧ѧݧߧԧ ڧݧ ڧ֧ܧԧ ֧֧ӧڧ. ѧܧڧ֧ܧѧ ާߧا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ էҧߧ ѧߧ ӧѧ֧ ݧӧڧ֧ ֧֧ӧڧ ӧҧ ӧ٧ާاߧ : " ާݧ֧ է֧ߧڧ ֧ӧӧѧߧڧ ڧߧ ѧߧ, ҧݧڧا֧ߧڧ ܧާާߧڧܧѧڧ ܧ ӧݧ֧ ֧ԧ ܧߧ֧ߧ ֧ݧ"[24]. ѧߧӧ ܧѧ ҧ ѧާ ާ֧ߧ ӧ ҧѧ٧, "էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ֧" ܧݧѧէӧѧ֧ާ ӧէ ֧: "... ާ֧ ܧݧѧէӧѧߧڧ է ڧ էߧԧ ѧߧӧ էԧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ ݧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ ڧ ѧߧ ֧ݧӧ֧֧ܧ اڧ٧ߧ, ֧֧֧ӧѧ֧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ֧ѧݧߧ ݧѧߧէѧ ֧ݧӧ֧֧ܧԧ ާڧ: էԧ ӧާݧ, ԧ ѧߧӧ ߧڧا, ާ C ܧۧߧ֧, ߧ C ާ֧ߧ, ݧ C ҧڧߧ֧ . . ڧէڧ "֧ԧڧߧѧݧڧ٧ѧڧ" ާ֧ߧ"[25]. ٧ߧڧܧѧ֧ ܧѧ ҧ ֧էڧߧ, ߧߧ ѧڧ֧֧ ݧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ڧ֧ ѧާ ҧѧ٧ ߧѧէ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ѧէڧ ѧߧӧݧ֧ߧڧ. էѧݧߧ ֧֧ӧڧ ѧߧѧӧݧڧӧѧ ֧ڧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧ֧ާ ڧڧ֧, ֧ߧߧ֧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ѧ٧ߧ ԧ֧ߧ֧٧ڧ ܧߧ ڧ, ܧѧ-: ڧ֧ܧڧ, էا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ, ߧѧѧݧڧܧڧ . . ٧ާاߧ ا ٧ڧڧ, ܧѧ ҧ "٧ѧӧڧѧѧ" ߧѧ ѧާ ѧ֧ܧڧ֧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧԧ, ֧ѧݧߧԧ ڧݧ ӧҧѧا֧ߧߧԧ, ֧֧ӧڧ; ާ֧ѧڧ٧ڧܧ ֧֧ӧڧ ӧѧ֧ ӧݧߧ ڧԧѧ֧ݧߧ ֧ާ, ܧѧ ާا֧ "ӧڧӧѧ" ٧էѧߧڧ ֧ݧ "ԧ٧է֧" ڧݧ ܧݧѧ֧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧.

ӧߧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ڧݧӧӧѧߧڧ, ܧ ҧݧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧ ߧ ߧڧާѧߧڧ ݧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ, ѧ٧ӧڧӧѧݧ 1980-1990- ԧէѧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ֧է ֧ڧߧѧݧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧ. է ٧ ֧է֧ݧ ӧ֧ ѧէڧڧߧߧ ܧާ֧֧ߧڧ, ԧ֧ԧѧ ٧ѧէѧӧѧݧڧ ӧѧާ, ܧ ӧ֧ ڧ ѧէڧڧߧߧ ѧߧӧܧ ߧ֧ݧ ֧ҧ "٧֧ߧ" ߧ֧ѧէڧڧߧߧԧ, ܧѧ ҧ ѧݧӧѧԧ էߧӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ԧ ݧԧڧ֧ܧԧ էէ. ѧ, ڧ٧֧ߧڧ ҧѧ٧ ާ֧ ܧѧ٧ѧݧ ֧ߧ ӧѧاߧ ٧ڧڧ ܧݧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧܧݧѧէߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ݧ֧ܧѧݧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ, ԧ֧ԧѧڧ ާѧݧԧ ҧڧ٧ߧ֧ ާ֧ߧԧ ѧާѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ[26]. ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ֧ݧ ڧߧէڧ ܧݧߧԧ ߧѧݧ֧էڧ ӧ֧ݧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ ӧѧاߧ ާڧӧѧߧڧ ܧݧڧӧڧӧѧߧڧ ҧѧ٧ ֧ ڧݧ ڧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ާ֧[27]. ֧, , ߧ ѧݧ ڧܧڧӧѧ ѧէڧڧߧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧէڧߧѧѧ, ߧ ӧѧݧ ا ܧ֧ ܧѧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ҧѧ ڧݧ ڧ ӧܧߧ. էҧߧѧ ާ֧էݧԧڧ֧ܧѧ ڧ֧ߧڧӧѧߧߧ ҧѧ٧ڧӧѧݧѧ ߧ ڧ٧ߧѧߧڧ ӧѧاߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ӧҧѧا֧ߧڧ, ܧ ڧѧݧ ߧ ֧ѧݧߧ, ڧ٧ڧ֧ܧ ާ֧, ߧ ٧ѧ֧ ѧ٧ѧҧѧӧѧݧ ߧ ߧӧ ߧ֧ҧէڧާ ֧ާ ҧѧ٧[28]. ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ѧݧ ܧѧ ҧ ѧӧާѧڧ֧ܧ "ѧ٧ҧѧ", ֧ԧ ܧ ڧҧ֧ݧ ֧ӧڧէߧ ߧ֧ѧӧߧӧ֧ߧ ߧ֧էߧէߧ ѧѧܧ֧.


֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ާ֧ߧѧݧߧ. ֧ߧ֧٧ڧ ާէڧڧܧѧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧

ѧߧӧ, ܧ ӧ٧ߧڧ ԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧԧ ԧէ, ҧݧѧէѧ֧ ߧ֧֧էӧ֧ߧߧ ֧ѧݧߧ, ާ֧اէ ֧ ܧѧ ѧߧӧ ֧ԧ ֧֧ܧڧӧߧԧ ҧѧ٧ (ӧ٧ԧ է֧ݧߧ ӧ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧԧ ӧݧ֧ߧڧ) ֧֧ݧڧӧѧ ާ֧ѧ֧ էԧ ѧߧӧ C ӧҧѧاѧ֧ާ, ާ, ܧ ާا֧ ߧѧ ֧֧ۧ ڧ էߧԧ էԧ, ߧ ֧ӧ֧.
ݧѧէڧާڧ ѧҧܧ. է, ڧݧ ѧէ ѧ (֧. ѧߧԧ. ֧ԧ֧ ݧڧߧ)

ݧߧ ֧ӧڧէߧ, ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ܧѧ ҧ֧ܧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ߧѧߧԧ ڧߧ֧֧ ӧ֧ԧէ ߧѧէڧݧ էڧߧѧާڧܧ. ѧ ҧѧ ҧ֧ܧ ާ֧ߧ ӧ ֧ѧߧڧ, ߧ էѧߧߧ ݧѧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ߧѧܧݧѧէӧѧݧڧ ߧ ֧ڧڧܧ ѧާԧ ҧ֧ܧ C ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ڧ٧ߧѧѧݧߧ, " ѧӧ اէ֧ߧڧ", ާߧاڧݧ ڧݧ ѧ٧ާߧاѧݧ ӧڧէ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ܧ ܧѧاէ ܧߧܧ֧ߧ ާާ֧ߧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ާѧܧڧާѧݧߧ էӧݧ֧ӧݧ ֧ҧߧ ߧѧߧԧ ҧ֧ӧ , ڧ, ӧ֧ "ӧ֧֧ߧߧ ҧݧڧܧ".

ݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ "֧֧ӧ" ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ߧѧܧ, ߧѧѧ էѧާ ߧ֧ާ֧ܧԧ ԧ֧ԧѧ ѧݧ ڧ֧ ֧ӧ ݧӧڧߧ XIX ӧ֧ܧ[29] ѧܧڧ֧ܧ ٧ѧӧ֧֧ߧߧ ߧѧѧݧ XX ӧ֧ܧ ݧ֧է ֧ߧ֧, ҧ ֧ӧ ֧֧է ֧֧ӧ ާ֧էݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ. ֧٧ݧѧ ӧڧݧ ӧ֧֧ߧߧ ߧӧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ٧, ܧ ҧ ѧѧܧ֧֧ ߧ ݧܧ ҧڧݧڧ֧ ߧӧ ߧѧߧ ֧ާڧߧ ( ҧݧ ݧڧ ݧ֧էӧڧ), ܧݧܧ ڧߧڧڧѧݧߧ ڧߧ ߧ֧ߧڧ֧ ڧѧߧڧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ҧ֧ܧ C ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ[30]. ѧ, ӧӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ߧڧ ֧ݧ֧ ݧѧߧէѧ ҧݧ, , ӧڧէ֧֧ݧӧ ֧ӧѧ֧ߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ ڧ ߧѧܧ, ҧݧڧ٧ܧ "ӧѧӧ֧" ڧߧ֧֧ӧѧӧڧ ֧ ҧ֧ܧ (ԧ֧ԧѧڧ "ҧݧڧ٧" C ., ߧѧڧާ֧, ֧ӧ ڧѧߧڧ ڧۧܧڧ ѧܧѧէ֧ާڧܧ XVIII -- ߧѧѧݧ XIX ӧ֧ܧ C . . ާ֧ݧڧߧ, . . ѧݧݧѧ, . . ֧֧ڧߧ է.) ߧѧܧ էڧѧߧڧߧߧ, ܧѧ ӧ֧֧ߧߧ ڧܧڧӧѧݧ ѧ ҧ֧ܧ ӧ֧ԧ ڧߧ֧֧, ֧ԧ ܧ ҧݧѧԧէѧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧߧڧ (ԧ֧ԧѧڧ "էѧݧ")[31]. ֧ߧ֧ڧ֧ܧѧ ӧѧڧѧڧӧߧ ԧ ڧߧڧ ("֧٧ܧ" ҧݧѧԧէѧ ߧӧ ߧѧߧ ߧڧ ߧѧӧէڧݧѧ ѧӧާѧڧ֧ܧ) ٧ӧݧڧݧ ܧѧ ҧ ѧߧ ѧާ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ էߧӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ѧԧާ֧ߧڧӧѧ, ڧݧ "ܧӧѧߧڧڧڧӧѧ" ֧ԧ. ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ܧѧ ֧٧ݧѧ ݧԧڧ֧ܧԧ էէ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ (ڧݧ ѧߧ) ާԧݧ ٧ѧاէѧ ܧѧާ, ֧֧֧ܧѧ ӧ٧ѧڧާէ֧ۧӧӧѧ ާ֧اէ ҧ, "ӧѧڧӧѧ" ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧߧ. ѧ, ܧݧѧڧ֧ܧ էݧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ҧѧ٧ ѧߧ ѧ٧էҧڧݧ ߧ ާߧا֧ӧ ӧ٧ѧڧާӧ٧ѧߧߧ, է֧ѧݧߧ ѧ էѧا ѧ٧ߧӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ҧݧ֧ "ާ֧ݧܧڧ" ҧѧ٧, ܧ ܧѧ ҧ ާڧӧѧݧ ҧ֧ ҧѧ٧ߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ݧ. ҧ֧ߧߧ ٧ѧާ֧ߧ ݧѧ ԧѧߧڧߧ էڧڧݧڧ C ߧѧڧާ֧, ԧ֧ڧڧ. ܧߧڧԧ ֧ߧѧߧ է֧ݧ " ѧܧ ѧߧڧ" ާاߧ ӧէ֧ݧڧ ֧ݧ ֧ڧ ݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧߧ ԧ֧ڧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ѧߧڧ, ܧ ҧݧ ާڧӧѧߧ ߧ ֧֧֧֧ߧڧ ܧݧ֧ӧ էݧ ѧߧ ߧڧ ҧڧ (֧էڧ٧֧ާߧާ, ܧ֧ݧܧѧ ڧާܧѧ ڧӧڧݧڧ٧ѧڧ, ܧߧާڧ֧ܧѧ ֧ڧ֧ڧ ӧ . .)[32]. ߧէѧާ֧ߧ ӧ֧ էѧݧߧ֧ۧڧ ѧߧާѧڧ C ҧѧ ѧݧݧڧ, ܧ ֧٧ܧ ѧڧڧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ԧ֧ڧڧ֧ܧԧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ѧߧڧ[33]. ֧֧էѧ էڧߧѧާڧܧ ڧ ҧѧ٧ ٧էѧ֧, ӧݧߧ ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ, ڧ֧ާߧ ܧާݧڧӧߧ ֧ܧ, ܧ ҧӧ֧ ܧѧ ҧ ߧѧܧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ҧէ֧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ էߧӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ӧ٧ѧڧާߧڧܧߧӧ֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ѧ٧ߧӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ѧѧܧ֧ڧڧ ѧާڧ ҧѧ٧ (է / ֧ڧ֧ڧ, ӧ֧էڧ ֧ԧڧ / է֧֧ڧӧߧ ֧ԧڧ . .)[34].

ܧߧ ݧاߧ ߧ֧էߧէߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ѧާ ާԧݧ ٧ѧܧݧѧ ֧ҧ ӧܧߧ էѧߧ ڧӧ֧ڧӧ ѧ٧ߧѧѧܧ֧ߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ܧ ٧էѧӧѧݧ ֧ݧ ֧էڧߧ ֧ݧ֧ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧߧ ܧߧ֧ܧ ӧڧڧ ԧ ڧݧ ڧߧԧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ. ѧݧ ӧ٧ާاߧ, ѧܧڧ֧ܧ, ٧ߧѧ֧ݧߧ ܧߧڧӧѧߧڧ ҧҧ֧ߧߧ ާѧܧԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ܧ ܧѧ ҧ ԧݧѧݧ ڧݧ ٧ѧާ֧ѧݧ ҧ ֧ѧݧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧӧ. ѧڧާ֧, ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ ѧߧ ڧ, ܧ ҧ "ܧߧڧӧѧ", ԧݧѧӧߧ ҧѧ٧, ڧ ݧڧ֧ѧߧ ڧݧܧڧ ֧ܧ XIX-XX ݧ֧ڧ, ҧݧѧէѧ ֧ܧ ӧѧا֧ߧߧާ ާڧߧѧݧߧާ ѧѧܧ֧ڧڧܧѧާ ڧާ֧ ӧ ӧܧݧ "֧ݧ֧"; ӧܧ "ݧܧ" ݧاڧݧ " ܧ" [35]. էҧߧ ҧѧ٧ߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ާѧߧڧݧڧ ֧էѧӧݧ ҧ, , ӧ֧ҧѧ٧ߧ ݧڧԧ էݧ ѧҧܧ ާ֧ѧߧڧ٧ާ ٧էѧߧڧ ߧܧڧߧڧӧѧߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧ֧, ܧ ҧߧ ֧ܧڧӧߧ ѧէѧڧӧѧ ܧѧ ҧ ֧֧ӧѧڧӧѧ ӧ֧ӧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ "էܧ" ѧ٧ݧڧߧԧ է ڧڧܧ-ܧݧߧ ֧ݧ֧ܧڧ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧ "ܧާݧ֧ܧ". ѧ, ҧѧ ѧߧ ڧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧ ڧѧ ѧѧܧ֧ߧ ѧ֧ܧ, ܧ է֧ާѧܧڧӧѧݧ ڧ ܧѧ ѧߧӧ ӧߧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ܧݧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ԧѧߧڧ, ܧѧ ֧֧էߧ ѧߧӧ ڧݧ ѧߧӧ-ާ֧اէ [36].

֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ, ܧ ѧߧӧڧ ӧڧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ҧѧ٧ (ڧݧ ҧѧ٧ѧާ), ާا֧ ҧ ֧էӧ, ߧڧӧ֧ѧݧߧ ڧߧާ֧ߧ ڧݧԧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧѧݧڧ٧ ڧާ ѧ٧ݧڧߧԧ է ֧ܧ. ڧާ ܧѧ ӧ֧ҧѧ٧ߧ ڧߧӧѧڧѧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ ٧ѧܧݧѧ֧ ֧ҧ ҧԧѧ ӧ٧ާاߧ էݧ ҧѧ٧ߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ݧڧ֧ѧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ. ֧֧ߧߧ ѧ٧ӧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧާ ܧѧ ߧڧܧѧݧߧԧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ֧ ٧ӧݧ֧ ѧߧѧݧڧ٧ڧӧѧ ҧѧߧ ӧ٧ ݧӧߧ ڧ֧ާ "ҧѧ C ֧ѧݧߧ". ާѧ ݧѧէڧާڧ ѧҧܧӧ "ݧڧ", ܧ ѧ ֧ҧ اէѧ֧ ߧ֧ާѧݧ ܧݧڧ֧ӧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧݧݧ٧ڧ, ѧ ҧ֧ܧ ߧ֧ѧէڧڧߧߧԧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧѧݧڧ٧[37]. ѧէڧڧߧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ߧڧ ҧݧ ֧֧ާݧ֧ߧ ܧߧ֧ܧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ݧڧ֧ѧߧԧ ڧާ ܧѧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ֧, ѧ ֧ܧ ѧҧܧӧ ܧѧ ҧ ӧڧӧѧ ӧ֧ߧ ֧ѧܧڧ C ҧѧ٧ߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ڧҧ֧ݧ ҧ֧ܧѧ֧ާ, ߧ ܧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ اѧߧ, ڧާ֧ߧߧ ާ. ѧߧӧ ڧާ ҧݧ, ֧ӧ, ԧ֧ԧѧڧ٧ڧӧѧߧ; ܧߧܧ֧ߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ҧݧ "ݧߧ֧ߧ" ѧާڧ ֧ܧ. ֧ܧ "ܧߧާڧ֧ܧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ ݧڧ" ֧էѧӧڧ ҧ, , ҧѧ٧ߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ڧѧߧڧ ާѧߧ, ܧ ܧѧ ҧ ӧڧѧݧ "֧ڧڧѧݧߧ ܧ" ߧѧҧܧӧܧԧ ڧާ.

ѧڧҧݧ֧ ڧߧ֧ߧڧӧߧ ާէڧڧܧѧڧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ާէ֧ݧڧӧѧߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ѧѧܧ֧ߧ էݧ ܧݧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ, ҧ֧ߧߧ էݧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ܧݧߧ ݧѧߧէѧ[38]. ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ӧ֧ߧ ӧ֧ҧѧ٧ڧ ѧާ ܧݧ ӧѧ ߧ֧֧ާ֧ߧߧ ݧӧڧ֧ ܧѧ֧ӧ ٧էѧӧѧ֧ާԧ ڧߧ֧ڧ֧ܧԧ ҧѧ٧ ܧݧߧԧ ݧѧߧէѧ ѧߧ, ѧۧߧ ڧݧ ާ֧ߧ, ߧ ѧާ ӧߧӧ ٧էѧߧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ܧѧ ҧ ߧڧ٧ӧѧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ܧݧ, ڧէѧ ֧ ߧ֧ӧڧާ ߧڧܧѧݧߧ[39]. ѧާ ܧݧ ڧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ܧѧ ҧ ѧ٧ԧӧѧ ߧ ӧ֧ߧ ֧ާݧ ֧ݧӧ֧֧ܧ ڧڧ (ڧݧ ڧڧ), ާݧ֧ߧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ ֧էݧѧԧѧ֧ ާݧ֧ߧߧ ҧէ֧[40]. ܧߧ֧ܧ ߧڧާѧߧڧ ܧݧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ ܧѧ ާ֧ѧڧ٧ڧܧ ֧ڧڧ (ѧߧӧ)[41] ާݧ֧ߧߧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧԧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ, ֧ԧ "ܧݧ֧ߧߧ" ߧ֧֧էӧ֧ߧߧ ӧݧ֧ ܧݧڧ֧ӧ ܧѧ֧ӧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ܧ ܧѧ ҧ ֧էѧӧݧ ӧѧاѧ ѧߧӧ ܧݧ.

"ާӧܧ" ܧѧ ҧ ٧ѧӧ֧է֧ӧѧߧڧ ߧӧ, էܧڧӧߧ ܧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ܧ֧ߧߧާ ֧ާѧާ ֧ܧѧ֧ ߧ ԧѧߧڧѧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ܧݧ, ֧ ԧѧߧڧߧ, ߧڧߧ ٧ߧѧ, ܧ ڧէڧ ߧѧݧا֧ߧڧ, ܧݧ֧ܧڧ֧ܧ ާ֧֧ߧڧ ا ӧ֧ާ ҧ֧ߧڧ ѧէڧڧߧߧԧ ӧ٧ѧڧާܧݧߧԧ ڧߧ֧֧. ѧ ֧٧ݧѧ էҧߧԧ ԧѧߧڧߧԧ ҧѧ٧ߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ "ڧܧݧ֧ߧڧ" ӧԧݧէڧ, ߧѧڧާ֧, "ܧӧܧڧ էߧ֧ӧߧڧ" ѧݧ֧ ֧ߧާڧߧ. ҧѧ ܧӧ ֧ߧާڧߧ, ܧݧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ٧ѧѧէߧ֧ӧ֧ۧܧԧ ݧ֧ӧԧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧ 1920- ԧէ, ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ, ֧ާڧ, ڧӧߧԧ, ֧էѧ ԧݧѧ٧ѧ ٧ѧڧߧ֧֧ӧѧߧߧԧ ڧѧ֧ݧ ӧݧߧ ѧ٧ڧѧܧڧ, "ѧ٧ڧѧڧ" C ݧܧߧӧڧ ٧ѧѧէߧ֧ӧ֧ۧܧڧ ֧ѧݧڧ ԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ. էѧ֧ ߧ ݧߧ: ڧ ֧ӧ֧ۧܧڧ ԧ֧ߧ֧٧ڧ ֧ ܧݧߧ ֧ѧݧڧ, ܧ ҧ֧ߧߧ ֧֧اڧӧѧ ֧֧ާݧ ֧ߧާڧߧ ӧ֧ܧ ݧڧ, է֧ݧѧ֧ ҧѧ ܧӧ ֧ԧ ѧܧӧܧ ߧ֧էߧէߧ, ߧ֧ۧڧӧ ӧ ا ֧ߧ ֧ܧڧ, ٧ѧާڧߧѧڧާ. ٧ܧڧ ѧ, ܧ ڧէѧ ܧӧ ҧݧڧ ڧާӧڧ٧ڧӧѧߧߧ ާ֧ݧڧ; ѧߧӧ ާܧӧܧ ٧ڧާ, ܧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ ԧ, ֧ݧ ߧ ڧݧ ݧէߧ; ܧӧ ܧѧ "ѧڧ֧ܧߧѧ ֧ڧ" ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ֧էާ֧; ߧߧ ֧ߧڧ ܧ ܧ ѧӧߧڧߧ ӧߧ ԧէ; է֧֧ӧ֧ߧܧѧ ҧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ԧާߧ ާܧӧܧڧ ݧѧէ֧ C ӧ ݧܧѧݧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ާڧ ߧ էڧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧ٧ߧ էҧߧ ҧѧ٧ߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ܧѧڧߧ C ߧ ܧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ѧߧ, ܧݧ ӧ֧ާ֧[42]. ٧էѧߧڧ ݧ ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ܧѧ ѧ ާ֧ѧߧڧ٧ާ ܧݧߧ ѧާڧէ֧ߧڧڧܧѧڧ, ߧ ѧާ ܧݧ էݧاߧ ҧ էڧߧѧާڧߧ էѧا ѧԧ֧ڧӧߧ, ڧݧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ.

ݧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧާ֧ڧܧѧߧܧڧ ߧڧ C ڧާ֧ ܧݧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ܧѧߧڧ, ܧѧ էڧݧ اڧӧڧ ܧѧۧߧ էڧߧѧާڧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ. ߧڧܧѧݧߧ ֧էڧߧ֧ߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ, ܧݧߧ, ڧѧݧߧ, ڧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧէڧߧѧ ٧էѧݧ "ԧ ާ֧" C ӧ֧ҧѧ٧ߧ ҧѧ٧ߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ "֧ߧ٧֧". "...ߧڧ C ӧҧѧاѧ֧ާ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧ֧ ԧ֧ߧ֧ڧ֧ܧڧ ӧڧ ӧ٧ҧߧӧݧ֧ާԧ ڧѧݧߧԧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ. ڧߧڧ ӧڧ. ѧѧ C ҧ֧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ, ѧӧߧէ֧ۧӧѧ էӧڧاڧ ڧ, ڧ ӧ֧ܧ ާ֧. ѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ާ֧. ڧߧڧ, ٧ѧܧڧӧѧѧ ڧѧݧ, , ѧߧӧڧۧ ѧܧ. ߧѧҧ. ٧ ֧֧ݧڧӧ ԧ֧ާ֧ڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ, ֧֧է էߧ էԧ ҧѧߧ, ٧ ѧߧߧ ާ֧ѧߧڧ ڧ اڧӧڧ ݧ֧ާ֧ߧ, ѧڧӧڧ ѧڧߧ ܧ?"[43]. ߧڧ, , ߧ֧ܧ ާ֧ߧѧݧߧ ѧߧӧ, ӧڧӧ֧ ӧҧѧӧ֧ ֧ҧ ֧ ѧߧӧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ, ֧ѧݧߧԧ ѧӧ֧ էڧߧѧާڧߧ ާ֧ ާݧ, ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ ѧާ ާݧ. ާ ڧ ҧѧ ݧԧڧ, ܧѧ ֧ҧ֧ ӧ֧ԧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧԧ, ާ֧ߧѧݧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ܧѧԧѧڧӧѧߧڧ[44]. ֧ݧѧۧߧ, ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧӧ, ܧ ѧݧ ֧էާ֧ ڧߧ֧ߧڧӧߧ ڧڧܧ- ڧݧ ݧڧڧܧ-ܧݧߧ ֧ݧ֧ܧڧ (ѧާ֧ݧ֧ܧڧ), ѧߧӧ էߧӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ާ֧ѧާ ӧ֧ҧѧ٧ߧԧ ܧѧԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ܧݧ. " ݧڧ, ߧ֧ԧ, ѧܧѧާ ݧ֧اѧ ܧѧ , ܧ ԧӧ ֧էݧѧԧѧ اڧ. ֧֧ۧݧ ڧݧ٧֧ ܧѧ ֧ܧѧܧݧ "ѧ֧ ӧ" C ѧѧ ڧ٧ҧѧا֧ ߧ ߧ֧ ܧѧ ݧاߧѧ ڧ֧ާ ާѧݧ֧ߧܧڧ ݧӧ, ߧڧ ڧ. ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧѧ ܧѧ ѧ ا ҧݧڧ٧ܧ ާ, ҧ ѧ ֧ߧ ߧӧԧ ܧԧ ӧڧ٧ѧݧߧԧ ܧݧ, ܧѧ ֧ ֧ߧڧߧ."[45]. ާ֧ڧܧѧߧܧڧ ֧٧ڧէ֧ߧ ѧߧܧݧڧ ٧ӧ֧ݧ 1942 ԧէ, ֧ѧڧ ާާ֧ߧ ӧ ާڧӧ ӧۧߧ, ڧ٧ߧ֧ "֧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ܧѧ", ܧѧԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ է֧ݧ ܧߧڧاߧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧ ֧ݧ ܧߧާѧѧҧߧ ܧѧ ѧݧ ֧էާ֧ ߧ֧էէ֧ݧߧԧ ڧߧ֧֧ ާڧݧݧڧߧ ѧާ֧ڧܧѧߧ֧. ֧ѧݧߧѧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧѧ ܧѧ, ѧܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ާا֧ ӧѧ ܧѧ ѧާ ֧ܧڧӧߧ ܧݧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧݧ ݧڧڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ, ܧ ֧էѧӧڧ "ܧӧڧߧ֧ߧڧ" ܧߧڧߧ֧ߧ, ѧߧ ڧݧ ѧۧߧ, էѧا ֧ݧ ѧާ ߧ ٧ѧ֧ѧݧ֧ݧ ӧ֧ էԧڧ ֧ڧڧ. ֧ݧڧܧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ (ܧѧܧڧ, ާاߧ, ߧѧڧާ֧, ڧѧ ҧѧ ߧڧ) ߧѧߧߧ ѧ٧ӧ֧ӧѧ֧ ӧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧѧ ҧӧ֧ اէ֧ߧڧ ާߧا֧ӧ ڧߧ֧֧ѧڧ, ܧ ѧާ, ֧ӧ, ӧݧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧާ[46].

ҧݧ֧ ڧܧ ܧߧ֧ܧ ڧާ֧ߧߧ ҧѧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ԧѧߧڧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ ܧѧ ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ ߧڧӧ֧ѧݧߧ ֧ާܧڧ. էҧߧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ݧڧ ڧѧڧ, ܧԧէ ܧ ѧާԧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ ާݧ ߧ ѧէڧڧߧߧ ҧڧߧѧߧ ٧ڧڧ (֧ߧ / ֧ڧ֧ڧ), էѧا ӧէ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ֧ ݧ֧ڧ֧ڧ (. ѧݧݧ֧ѧۧ), ܧѧ ڧ٧ާѧڧ֧ܧڧ, ܧ է֧ݧѧ ѧާ ѧߧӧ (, ݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧߧ, ֧ԧ ҧѧ٧) ֧ߧڧѧݧߧ ҧ֧٧ԧѧߧڧߧ[47]. է֧ "scarto" ("էӧڧԧ") ڧѧݧߧ֧ . ڧߧ٧ҧԧ . ѧ֧ݧߧӧ ٧ӧݧ֧ ѧާѧڧӧѧ ڧԧѧߧڧߧ ֧ڧڧ ܧѧ ӧ֧ԧ է "էӧۧߧ ֧ڧ֧ڧ" ާ֧ ٧ѧاէ֧ߧڧ ߧڧܧѧݧߧԧ [48]. ݧ֧ѧߧէ ֧ݧ ӧ֧اէѧ֧, "...ԧѧߧڧ C ֧ ֧էڧߧ ܧڧ֧ڧ էݧ ӧ֧ ڧէ֧ߧڧߧ֧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧԧ ާڧ, ֧ҧӧѧ֧ԧ ߧڧ ߧߧԧ ѧߧӧݧ֧ߧڧ."[49]. ܧ ѧߧӧ, , ԧѧߧڧߧ, ߧѧէڧ ާ֧اէ ѧ٧ݧڧߧާ ѧߧӧѧާ, ӧ֧ާ֧ߧѧާ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧާ. ֧ݧ էѧ ҧѧ էҧߧԧ ѧߧӧ C ѧߧܧ֧ѧߧܧڧ ֧֧ܧ֧ (ѧ ا).

ѧѧܧ֧ߧ, ԧѧߧڧ ( ڧݧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧѧ C ާ֧اէ ݧѧߧէѧ ߧ-ݧѧߧէѧ) ѧݧ էߧ ڧ ܧݧ֧ӧ ҧݧ֧ ֧ڧ ܧݧ ѧڧ֧ܧ[50]. ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ ڧܧӧ ݧܧߧݧڧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧ ҧݧ֧ާ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ, ܧ ܧاѧ֧ ѧާ ܧݧߧ ڧݧ ѧڧ֧ܧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ. ާէ֧ߧڧ٧ ܧݧߧ-ѧڧ֧ܧߧ ѧܧӧܧ ӧڧݧ ֧ߧާ֧ߧ ѧ ާ֧: ܧݧ ѧߧӧڧݧѧ ߧ-ݧѧߧէѧߧ, ܧݧߧ ާڧߧڧާѧݧڧ٧ ҧ ڧ֧ߧڧӧѧ ߧ ާѧܧڧӧܧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ݧѧߧէѧ ߧ-ݧѧߧէѧ, ѧڧ֧ܧ ާݧڧݧ ֧ҧ ܧѧ ѧ -ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ [51]. "֧٧ߧӧ֧ߧڧ" ѧէڧڧߧߧԧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ ܧѧ ߧ ڧݧ է֧ܧѧڧ, ֧ԧ ѧܧڧӧߧ ӧا֧ߧڧ ܧѧ ѧӧߧѧӧߧԧ "ѧӧ" ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ٧ѧѧӧڧݧ ٧ߧѧ ֧ԧ ܧѧ ֧اէ ӧ֧ԧ ӧѧاߧ֧ ӧ֧ԧ էӧڧا, էڧߧѧާڧߧ ԧѧߧڧ, ܧѧ ߧߧ ާ֧ߧ֧ ݧӧڧ ڧܧߧӧ֧ߧڧ ӧ٧ѧڧާէ֧ۧӧڧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ֧. ܧݧߧ ڧݧ ѧڧ֧ܧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ "-ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ" ܧݧ ߧ֧ҧէڧާ էݧاߧ ӧڧߧڧާѧ ܧѧ ֧֧ӧ֧, ֧֧էӧڧԧѧ֧֧, ԧѧߧڧߧ C ܧѧ ӧ֧ԧ է ӧݧ֧ߧߧ ާѧ֧ڧѧݧڧ٧ӧѧߧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ.

ߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ҧѧ٧ (ҧѧ٧) ڧѧ֧ ߧ ֧ߧާ֧ߧݧԧڧ֧ܧ ߧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ, ֧ "...ѧߧӧ ֧, ӧ٧ ӧާ֧ ާݧ ߧڧ, ѧܧڧܧ"[52]. էӧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ C ާ֧, ѧۧ, ѧߧӧ, ֧ڧڧ C ӧ٧ѧڧާӧ٧ѧߧ ԧ֧ߧ֧ڧ֧ܧ, ܧݧܧ է֧֧ݧߧ ѧ٧ݧڧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧֧, ֧, ާѧ֧ڧѧݧߧ ܧѧߧ ާڧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ, ڧէ֧ߧڧڧܧѧڧ ާݧ C ӧ֧է֧ ڧ ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧާ է֧ߧڧ[53]. ֧ԧѧڧ ٧էѧ֧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧ ӧ ѧߧӧ, ܧ ӧܧڧ ӧ "ԧէ" ڧҧ֧ѧ ӧ ާ[54]. ѧܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ѧߧӧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ ֧ާڧ ڧէ֧ѧݧ ڧէ֧ߧڧڧڧӧѧ ֧ҧ ѧާڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧӧ. ߧߧ էӧڧا֧ߧڧ, էڧߧѧާڧܧ ѧާԧ ѧߧӧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ (ߧ ӧ ӧ֧ާ ܧѧ ҧ ߧ֧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ԧѧߧڧ ܧէڧߧѧ) ڧӧէڧ ߧ֧ӧѧէ֧ߧڧ, ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧԧ ٧ѧ٧ ާ֧اէ ߧڧ ѧܧا ѧߧާڧڧާ ֧٧ݧѧ ԧ ֧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧӧ C ڧէڧ ӧ֧ԧ է ҧ֧ܧߧ֧ߧѧ ا ӧ֧ާ ڧާ֧ѧ ܧߧ֧ߧ ֧ݧ "ާ֧էݧԧڧ֧ܧѧ ԧߧ". ߧߧ ֧ӧڧ ٧ѧ٧ ާ֧اէ ѧߧӧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧӧ ٧ѧݧߧ֧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧާ ѧ٧ߧҧѧ٧ߧާ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧާ ҧѧ٧ѧާ, ܧ ӧݧߧ ݧ ާ֧էڧѧ ڧݧ ܧݧѧէ. ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ԧѧߧڧ (ާ֧اէ ާ֧ѧާ, ѧۧߧѧާ, ѧߧѧާ, ݧѧߧէѧѧާ) ܧѧ ߧ֧ާߧ֧ߧߧ ӧڧէ֧֧ݧӧ ڧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ "ߧاߧڧ" ӧݧ, ֧ӧ, ާ֧اէ֧ߧڧާ ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ ӧѧاߧ, ܧڧ էܧڧӧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧.


֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ (ݧڧڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ) ҧѧ٧


֧ڧѧݧڧ٧ڧӧѧߧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧӧ, ܧ ӧܧڧ ѧ ֧էѧӧݧ ҧ ѧߧѧާڧӧѧߧߧ ٧ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ֧֧ߧ ѧӧߧާߧ ӧѧڧѧߧ ҧѧ٧ӧԧ, ѧէڧڧߧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧէڧߧѧѧ ("ܧѧԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ"), ѧߧӧ, ֧էݧѧԧѧ ڧ֧ާ ӧڧ ֧ڧڧ֧ܧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧. ҧѧ٧ ܧѧ ҧ ӧҧڧѧ ֧ҧ ҧ֧ߧߧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ާݧ֧ߧڧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ֧էާ֧ߧ ڧݧ ֧ڧߧѧݧߧ ֧ է֧֧ݧߧ ѧܧܧާݧڧ ѧܧڧ ҧѧ٧, էѧߧ ܧߧާߧ, ѧާ "ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ" էҧߧ ֧ է֧֧ݧߧ.

ݧڧڧܧ, اѧݧ, ާݧ, էߧ ڧ ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ ҧݧѧԧէѧߧ ݧ֧, ڧݧ ݧڧԧߧ ҧѧ٧ߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ. ֧ڧڧܧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧԧ ާݧ֧ߧڧ, ҧ֧ߧߧ, ܧ ѧէڧڧߧߧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧֧ԧӧ, ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ֧ާѧڧ٧ ԧ ڧ ާݧ֧ߧڧ ѧӧߧڧ֧ݧߧ ӧܧѧ ߧѧ֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ߧ էڧا֧ߧڧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧԧ ܧާާڧ ӧ֧է, ܧѧ ѧӧڧݧ, ާڧӧѧߧڧ էӧݧߧ , ֧ܧڧ ӧܧݧ ݧڧڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ (ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ) ҧѧ٧[55]. ѧѧܧ֧ߧ, էѧݧߧ֧֧ۧ ݧڧڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ާԧ ާڧӧѧ էѧߧ ݧاߧ, ѧ٧ӧ֧ӧݧ֧ߧߧ ѧ ڧ֧ѧڧ٧ڧӧѧߧߧ ֧էڧߧ ڧ֧ާ C ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ܧѧڧߧ ާڧ[56].

ѧاߧ ާ֧ڧ, ѧ ާ֧ѧߧڧ٧ ӧ٧ߧڧܧߧӧ֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧ ֧էݧѧԧѧ֧ ѧѧݧݧ֧ݧߧ, ӧ٧ѧڧާӧ٧ѧߧߧ ܧѧ ҧ ӧ֧ߧߧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ڧ֧ާ ݧڧڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧. " ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ݧڧڧܧ-, ڧ٧ڧܧ-, ڧѧݧߧ- ܧߧާڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ, ڧݧ ҧѧ٧ էѧߧߧ, ߧѧݧѧԧѧ ѧ٧ߧէߧ, ڧߧԧէ ڧӧ֧ѧڧ է էԧ ݧڧڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ C ާ֧ߧԧ ߧѧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ, ӧ֧ߧߧ, ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ է֧֧ݧ֧. ӧ٧ߧڧܧѧ֧ ݧاߧѧ ڧ֧ާ ݧڧڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ֧ѧԧڧѧ ߧ ӧߧ֧ߧڧ ӧ٧է֧ۧӧڧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧާ ӧ֧ ܧߧڧԧѧڧ ܧ"[57]. ѧڧާ֧, ֧٧ݧѧ էݧڧ֧ݧߧ ҧҧ ڧ ڧѧ ٧ ڧѧާ XVII-XIX ӧ֧ܧѧ ާڧӧѧݧ էѧߧ ݧاߧ, ާߧԧѧӧߧ ݧڧڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ ԧ ֧ԧڧߧ, ܧ ڧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧڧ ԧݧѧӧߧ ܧ-էҧѧ٧: ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ݧا֧ߧڧ ڧ, ߧ֧ߧڧ ڧ / ڧѧ ڧ / اߧԧѧڧ, اڧ֧ݧ ڧѧާ . .[58].

ڧߧѧާڧܧ է֧ݧߧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧ է֧ݧߧ ݧѧ ާا֧ ҧ ڧѧߧ ڧܧݧڧ֧ݧߧ ܧѧ ڧާ֧ߧߧ էڧߧѧާڧܧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧݧ ݧڧڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧. ѧ, ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ӧ֧ߧߧ ֧ߧڧ֧ӧ ڧ ֧ݧڧܧҧڧѧߧڧ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ ӧ ӧ ݧӧڧߧ XIX ӧ֧ܧ ڧӧ֧ݧ ֧ߧ ڧߧ֧֧ߧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ڧѧڧ: ֧ݧ ֧ӧ֧ۧܧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ڧ֧ާ ܧէڧߧѧ ڧ ѧާѧڧӧѧݧѧ ֧ݧڧܧҧڧѧߧڧ֧ ܧѧ "ѧ٧ڧѧܧѧ" է֧اѧӧ, ܧѧ ߧߧ ߧѧѧݧ ާ֧اէߧѧէߧ ԧݧѧ֧ߧڧ, ݧӧڧ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ ("ѧ٧ڧѧܧѧ" ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧѧ ڧ֧ާ ܧէڧߧѧ) էݧاڧ֧ݧߧѧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧѧ էڧݧާѧڧ֧ܧѧ էݧ ڧէڧݧ ڧާ֧ߧߧ ާ֧اէ էӧާ ֧ӧ֧ۧܧڧާ է֧اѧӧѧާ C ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ ڧ, ԧݧѧڧ ֧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧާ է֧ۧӧڧާ ֧ԧڧߧ, ڧҧ֧ ܧڧ "֧ӧ֧ۧܧڧ" ֧[59]. ӧ֧ҧѧ٧ߧѧ ڧߧӧ֧ڧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧ ӧاէѧݧѧ էѧߧߧ ݧѧ ܧѧ ҧ էӧۧߧ ֧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧.

ѧѧ ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ ާߧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ާԧ ܧѧ ҧ ާߧاڧ, ӧѧ էߧӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ "ڧѧ" ٧ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ݧاߧ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ ֧էڧߧ ֧ݧ֧ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧߧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ѧ֧ԧڧ. էҧߧ "է֧ߧ ֧ѧܧڧ" ӧ֧է ӧ٧ߧڧܧߧӧ֧ߧڧ էߧӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧާ ֧ӧӧѧߧڧ, ѧܧا ӧ٧ѧڧާէ֧ۧӧڧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ էߧԧ ԧ ا ڧէߧԧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧԧ (ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧԧ) ҧ֧ܧ. ѧڧާ֧, ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ݧѧߧڧӧѧߧڧ 1944-1945 ԧէѧ ֧ڧӧѧݧ, ܧѧ ާڧߧڧާ, ֧ާ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧާ ҧѧ٧ѧާ , ܧ ӧէڧݧ ԧ֧ߧ֧ڧ֧ܧ ҧѧ٧ ڧۧܧ ڧާ֧ڧ[60]. ӧ ڧ ߧڧ ӧߧ ڧӧݧ է էԧ (ҧѧ ֧ӧ֧ۧܧ է֧اѧӧ ѧէڧڧߧߧ ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ ݧڧڧܧ ҧѧ ѧԧ֧ڧӧߧ "ݧѧ٧ڧѧܧ" է֧اѧӧ, ߧѧ֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ߧ ܧߧߧѧڧ), ֧ڧ ҧ էѧߧ ڧӧ֧ڧӧ ҧ֧էڧߧ ߧ֧ܧ ֧ էӧ ֧ӧ; էݧ ߧ֧ԧ ѧܧا ҧ ѧѧܧ֧֧ ڧ ۧڧӧ ާڧڧ֧ܧڧ ߧ, ܧ ӧݧڧݧ ߧ ѧէڧڧߧߧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ ڧۧܧ ڧާ֧ڧ-. "...ҧѧ ѧܧ ڧާ֧ڧ ҧѧ ѧݧڧߧܧ ѧݧڧѧߧ էڧܧѧ ݧڧҧ اէ֧ӧݧݧڧ, ݧڧҧ ѧӧݧݧڧ ֧ ԧ ߧѧݧا֧ߧڧ էߧԧ ߧ էԧ. ڧӧէڧݧ ߧ ݧܧ ާ֧֧ߧڧ ߧڧ, ߧ ֧ѧ ҧݧѧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ѧ֧ԧڧ"[61]. էߧӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ֧ӧӧѧߧڧ ڧ ֧ ԧݧѧӧߧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ٧էѧӧѧݧ ѧڧ֧ߧߧ, էѧا ߧ֧֧ܧ ѧ٧ާ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ, ܧ ֧ڧڧѧݧߧ ֧֧ߧ٧ڧ (ڧҧѧݧڧܧ, ֧ߧڧԧҧ֧ . .), ߧ֧֧ڧާ ڧݧ ݧѧҧ ֧ڧާ էݧ ֧ӧ֧ۧܧڧ ԧէѧ, ާԧݧ ӧԧݧէ֧ ӧݧߧ ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧާ ҧߧӧѧߧߧާ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ԧݧѧ٧ѧ .

ѧާ ڧߧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ӧ٧ѧڧާէ֧ۧӧڧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧ ӧ֧է ӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧܧڧӧߧާ ߧܧڧߧڧӧѧߧڧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧԧ է ҧ֧ߧ ާ֧اߧ ֧ڧڧѧݧߧ ٧ ާ֧اէ ڧݧߧާ ڧݧ ֧ߧڧѧڧާ ԧէѧӧѧާ, ܧ, , ާԧ ҧ էܧڧӧߧާ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧާ ҧѧ٧ѧާ էߧӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ. ѧ, ѧ ֧ڧڧ էӧۧߧԧ էڧߧ֧ߧڧ, ֧ӧڧէߧ, ӧ٧ߧڧ ֧ ԧݧҧܧ է֧ӧߧ ݧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ا ֧էߧ֧ӧ֧ܧӧ, ݧڧ ߧ ܧ ӧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ֧է֧ݧ[62]. էߧ ا ֧ڧڧ ѧާѧڧӧѧݧѧ ܧѧ ֧է֧ էӧ ѧ٧ߧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧ߧ ڧݧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ڧާ֧ܧԧ ڧ. ѧܧڧ ֧ڧڧ ߧڧݧڧ, ߧѧڧާ֧, ѧѧ ѧݧ ٧ڧ ӧ II-I ֧ݧ֧ڧ է . ., ҧ֧ߧ ԧէѧӧ ֧֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ ާ֧اէ ڧާܧ ڧާ֧ڧ֧ ѧڧ֧, ߧڧ ֧֧ԧӧڧߧ XIX ӧ֧ܧ էڧߧ֧ߧڧ ާѧߧܧ ڧާ֧ڧ ӧ-֧ߧԧڧ, , ߧѧڧާ֧, ݧ ާߧԧݧܧԧ ٧ѧӧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ѧާѧڧӧѧݧѧ ܧڧާ ݧ֧ڧѧާ ܧѧ ѧ ڧާ֧ڧ ѧԧѧէ (ܧѧ ѧӧݧѧӧߧѧ ٧֧ާݧ) էߧӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ, ݧڧڧ֧ܧ, ܧѧ ѧ ӧݧѧէ֧ߧڧ ާߧԧݧܧԧ ѧߧ[63]. էҧߧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ "ܧݧѧէܧ" ާԧ ڧӧէڧ ާڧӧѧߧڧ ֧ߧ ڧէݧڧӧ ֧ڧڧ֧ܧڧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ҧ֧ߧߧ ݧѧ ܧߧѧܧ ӧ֧֧ߧߧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧݧ. ѧ, ݧܧߧӧ֧ߧڧ ֧ܧ ѧ֧ۧܧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧݧ (֧ܧ ڧާ֧ڧ ڧӧ C ֧ܧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ڧܧ֧ߧܧ ֧ڧ) XV-XIV ӧ. է .., ߧڧ֧ݧ֧ ڧߧڧڧѧݧߧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧէڧڧ (ԧݧѧӧ֧ߧӧ-էާڧߧѧ ԧݧѧӧ֧ߧӧ-֧ӧ֧ߧӧ) ӧݧ֧ܧݧ ٧ ҧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧ "ѧ֧ܧѧߧڧ" ܧѧ ҧ ѧ٧ݧا֧ߧڧ ҧէߧ ߧէѧާ֧ߧѧݧߧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ڧ֧ ҧ֧ߧ ҧѧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ѧѧէ ѧݧ ٧ڧ ҧӧӧѧ ާ ѧ٧ݧا֧ߧڧ C ܧѧ ҧ "ӧѧӧѧ ܧ" ڧ ҧѧ٧ڧߧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ߧ֧ާ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧ. ѧѧܧ֧ߧ, ߧѧۧէ֧ߧߧ ڧާ֧ߧߧ էܧާ֧ߧ ҧڧ ԧէѧ-֧ߧڧܧ ٧ѧڧܧڧӧѧݧ ܧѧۧߧ ѧݧӧѧ ߧ֧٧ߧѧӧѧ֧ާ ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧݧߧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ է էԧ[64].

֧ߧ ӧ֧ҧѧ٧ߧ ҧݧ ѧߧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧԧ ҧѧ٧ -ڧ. ҧѧ էݧԧ ӧ֧ާ ާڧӧѧݧ ܧѧ ڧާ֧ܧڧ, ڧ֧ ҧ էѧߧ էҧ֧ (֧ ѧ٧ԧѧߧڧ֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ڧ ӧߧڧڧާ֧ܧڧ ӧݧѧէ֧ߧڧ-էާڧߧڧާ C ܧѧ, ҧݧѧ, ӧݧ, ӧڧߧ, ֧٧, ާ֧), ߧ էߧӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ֧ާ ҧݧ ӧۧӧ֧ߧߧ ֧ ӧڧߧӧ, ڧ٧ݧڧӧѧߧߧ, է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ԧ ާڧ[65]. ҧѧ ҧ֧ߧ ڧݧ ߧڧߧ ڧާ֧ڧ (ܧѧ ާاߧ ֧էѧӧڧ ڧ) էڧ ҧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ާݧ ܧ էҧ. ӧߧ ֧ߧ֧ާڧ֧ݧߧѧ ާէ֧ݧ: է֧ݧߧ ҧݧѧ ܧѧ ҧ ѧާҧѧ٧, ֧էѧӧݧ ҧ է֧ݧߧ ӧܧ, ѧާ , ѧڧ, ا ڧݧ ֧֧ߧߧ ֧ӧѧѧ֧ ڧ֧էڧߧ֧ߧߧ ֧ڧڧ ا ӧܧ, ܧ ֧ާ ѧާ٧ѧާܧߧ, ߧ ֧է֧ݧѧ "ӧ ڧ"[66]. էѧߧߧ ݧѧ ާ ӧڧէڧ, ѧܧڧ֧ܧ, էѧߧ ѧӧߧާߧ ާ֧ѧߧڧ٧ اէ֧ߧڧ ڧݧ ӧڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ѧߧէѧߧ, ܧѧ ҧ ѧާӧߧ, ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ (ӧ֧ҧѧ٧ߧ ާѧ֧֧), ݧӧڧ֧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ܧ ӧݧ֧ ڧާ֧ߧߧ ԧѧߧڧߧ (ߧѧ ܧѧ ҧ ӧ֧ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ӧէ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ, ٧ѧ֧ ԧѧاڧӧѧߧڧ ܧاѧ֧ԧ ާڧ).

ҧѧ ѧ٧ާ֧ߧ ѧߧӧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ, ܧѧ ӧҧ ѧѧܧ֧ߧ էݧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧܧ C ڧ ܧѧ ҧ ܧߧ֧ߧڧ, ӧ֧ݧڧ֧ߧڧ, "ܧӧѧߧӧѧߧڧ" ܧѧ ҧ ܧߧާ ڧާ[67] C ҧӧ֧ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ ܧߧާڧߧ ا ӧ֧ާ ҧ֧ߧߧ ֧ݧ֧ߧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧. ܧڧ ߧӧ ާ ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ, ܧѧ ѧӧڧݧ, ֧էݧѧԧѧݧ ߧӧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ-ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ѧ٧ާ֧ߧ էݧ ܧاѧ֧ԧ ާڧ, ܧ ܧߧݧڧէڧӧѧݧ ֧ԧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ٧էѧӧѧݧ ӧ֧ӧڧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ. ֧ߧէ֧ߧڧ ӧ ҧݧ֧ާ ӧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧ էߧӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ڧ ݧߧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ݧ ڧѧاڧӧѧߧڧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧ (ݧڧڧ֧ܧ) ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ[68], ܧ ݧӧڧ ߧߧ ާ֧ߧ֧ۧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ֧է ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ҧѧ٧ ާ֧ߧݧڧ, ӧ֧֧ߧӧӧѧݧڧ ڧݧ ѧէѧڧӧѧݧڧ. ٧ߧڧܧѧݧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧ ֧ݧ ֧ڧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ڧѧڧ ߧ ܧѧܧ- ҧѧ٧ӧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ-ѧ֧ڧ, ҧէ ݧڧ, ڧާ֧ڧ ڧݧ ֧ڧڧѧݧߧ ԧէѧӧ ӧԧ ֧ާ֧ߧ. էҧߧ "ҧڧܧݧѧا" ( ֧ӧ-) ާԧݧ ާڧӧѧ ѧ٧ӧ֧ߧ "ӧ֧֧" ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧ ܧѧ ҧ ߧ ݧҧ ӧܧ, ֧է֧ݧѧ ԧէӧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ާ. ֧ݧڧڧܧ, ѧܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ӧѧҧѧӧѧ֧ ֧ߧ ֧ڧڧ֧ܧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ѧէڧڧߧߧާ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧާ ѧߧӧ: ߧ, ԧҧ ԧӧ, ܧѧ ҧ "ڧݧ٧֧" ܧݧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧѧԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ٧ѧѧէߧ ܧݧ ֧ݧ ٧էѧߧڧ "ܧѧڧէߧ" ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ܧ ҧ ߧѧڧݧڧ ҧ ڧӧѧݧ ڧݧ ѧѧܧ֧ڧ٧ӧѧݧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧܧѧا֧ߧڧ "ڧܧڧӧݧ֧ߧڧ", ݧӧߧ ֧ݧ֧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧ էڧߧѧާڧܧ[69].

֧ڧ, ܧ ާاߧ ߧڧާѧ ܧѧ էڧڧݧڧߧ, ڧ٧ѧ ڧߧ֧֧ڧ ҧݧڧ ѧߧӧ[70], ӧݧߧ ֧ӧڧէߧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ ҧ ߧ ѧߧѧݧ ڧڧڧ, ܧѧ ާاߧ ҧݧ ҧ ٧ѧܧݧڧ ѧާܧѧ ݧԧڧ֧ܧ ܧߧ֧ڧ, ߧ ߧ֧ ҧݧ֧ ا֧ߧߧ ѧڧ֧ߧߧ ܧߧ֧ѧݧߧ ާݧ. ݧߧ-ڧڧ֧ܧѧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧܧ (ڧߧߧڧ ԧ֧ڧ), ާߧ֧ߧڧ ѧէ, ڧ٧ѧ֧ ާѧܧѧߧӧ (ڧݧ ѧ֧ѧݧ), "...ѧѧܧ֧ڧ٧ڧ֧ ߧ ݧܧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ, ߧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ էڧߧѧާڧ٧ާ ӧ٧ѧߧߧ է էԧ ߧ֧ߧڧ֧ ڧا֧ߧڧ ѧݧܧڧӧѧߧڧ, ٧ѧӧڧڧާ ֧ڧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧ֧ߧߧ֧, ѧӧݧڧ ߧ֧ӧڧާ ҧݧڧ ܧѧاէԧ ѧܧԧ ѧ֧ѧݧ ֧է֧ݧڧ ֧ԧ էҧ ӧߧ ҧߧ, ڧާ֧ߧ֧ާ "֧ݧӧ֧֧ӧ", ڧ֧ ߧ ڧ ҧڧݧԧڧ֧ܧ ާݧ"[71]. ߧڧӧ֧ѧݧߧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ (ڧݧ ԧ֧ܧڧ, ܧݧ ҧ ѧߧߧ ߧ ܧѧ٧ѧݧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ) ҧѧ٧ ڧ٧ӧѧߧ, ӧڧէڧާ, ֧ܧڧӧߧ, ֧ߧ ܧާѧܧߧ "اڧާѧ" ѧէڧڧߧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ, "اڧާѧ" ѧѧݧݧ֧ݧߧ ֧ԧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ѧѧܧ֧ڧڧܧ (էҧߧ֧ C ݧ֧է֧ ѧ٧է֧ݧ). ҧѧ ӧݧѧ ڧݧ ӧݧѧߧ ܧ ӧ֧ ڧէ ڧ֧ߧڧӧѧߧ ܧѧ ҧ ߧ ާڧӧѧߧڧ ӧ֧ԧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧӧѧߧԧ ѧߧӧ C ѧߧӧ ӧݧѧ, ܧ ާا֧ ߧէ ߧ ԧѧߧڧڧӧѧ ֧ѧݧߧާ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧާ ҧ֧اѧާ. էҧߧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧާ ѧߧӧ ҧݧ ֧ߧ ѧѧܧ֧ߧ էݧ ڧ: "...ӧݧѧ ާݧڧӧѧݧ ѧߧӧ ӧ֧ԧ ӧڧ٧ӧէӧ ܧѧ ݧڧ֧ߧߧ ֧է֧ݧ, ҧ֧ܧߧ֧ߧ"[72]. ڧۧܧڧ ӧݧѧ ӧ֧ԧէ ֧ާڧݧڧ ܧѧ ҧ ֧֧էڧ, ҧ ߧ ѧ, ֧ѧݧߧԧ ѧڧ֧ߧڧ ֧ڧڧ, ԧݧڧ ֧ ߧ ٧ѧӧ֧ӧѧߧߧ ڧݧ ֧ ߧ ڧ֧էڧߧ֧ߧߧ ѧߧӧ, ֧ ڧ֧ݧӧ ڧ֧ާ ܧէߧ ܧ֧֧[73]. ܧ֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ݧڧߧڧ, ܧѧ ҧ اڧӧ ݧڧڧ ߧߧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ߧܧڧ, "ߧ֧ӧ", ҧݧ, , ڧߧէڧܧѧ ڧݧ ާ֧ܧ ֧֧էߧԧ ѧڧ֧ߧڧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ҧѧ٧ӧ, ԧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ڧ ڧۧܧ ڧާ֧ڧ. ٧ѧڧܧ ѧܧڧ ԧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ܧѧ ҧ էէ֧اڧӧѧ֧ ߧ ӧ֧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧ "֧ݧ" ڧ, ٧ӧݧ֧ ٧էѧ ڧ֧ާߧ ֧ܧ (ӧ֧ԧ է "ѧէڧѧܧڧӧߧ ӧ֧֧ߧڧ") ߧ ߧӧ ڧ ֧֧֧֧ߧڧ ӧ٧ѧڧާէ֧ۧӧڧ[74]).

֧էӧڧ ֧ӧڧ է էԧ ֧ ѧڧ֧ߧڧ ӧݧѧߧ ѧߧ (ڧݧ ѧߧ ӧݧѧ) ֧ اѧڧ, ܧާ֧ڧ ֧ѧݧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧ ֧ ٧էѧߧڧ ާߧ, ԧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ߧѧէ ܧѧ ҧ ڧӧѧ٧. ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧӧ ڧ٧ߧѧѧݧߧ "٧ѧا֧ߧ" ߧ ӧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ է֧ާѧڧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ֧ӧߧѧѧݧߧԧ ҧѧ٧ ("ڧާڧէا"). ֧ڧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ާԧ ӧڧߧڧާѧ ܧѧ ܧѧݧ֧ۧէܧ, ܧ ާڧ֧ էڧߧѧާڧ֧ܧ ݧ ڧ ҧѧ٧. ߧڧܧѧݧߧ ѧߧӧ (ڧ٧ӧէߧ ا ӧ ֧֧ߧ ѧէڧڧߧߧԧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ) ܧѧ ҧ ٧ѧܧݧѧէӧѧ֧ ӧߧ ֧ҧ ܧ ֧ާ ܧ֧ߧڧ ڧѧߧߧ ֧ C ֧ ѧާ ӧ֧ާ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ѧӧ֧ߧߧ "֧֧ӧѧ֧ߧߧ" ѧާܧѧ ѧߧӧ, ܧ ֧ӧݧ֧ "ާߧڧڧߧ" ѧާԧ ֧ҧ.


ڧߧѧާڧܧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ (ڧڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧)

ӧ ا ѧާ ѧߧӧ (ܧѧ ֧ާ) ֧ ߧ֧, ֧ԧ ڧ ߧ ҧ֧: ާ֧, ԧէ ڧէڧ էӧڧا֧ߧڧ. ݧѧ٧ާ, ܧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ӧѧߧ ٧ѧާܧߧ ӧ֧֧ӧ C ԧ֧ߧڧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ ݧѧ٧ާ. ާا֧ ڧ٧ާ֧ڧ ԧݧҧݧ ӧ֧֧ӧ ѧߧڧ ާ֧اէ ߧڧާ, էߧѧܧ ѧާ ѧߧӧ ߧ֧ڧڧݧڧާ.
ݧѧէڧާڧ ѧҧܧ. է, ڧݧ ѧէ ѧ (֧. ѧߧԧ. ֧ԧ֧ ݧڧߧ)

֧֧ߧڧ XIX-XX ӧ֧ܧ ڧڧ ߧѧڧݧѧ "ҧѧѧ" ٧֧ާߧ ѧߧӧ. ߧ ֧ڧӧѧݧ ֧ڧާ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ߧڧ֧ ڧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ, ܧ ا֧ܧ ӧ֧ӧӧѧݧ ߧڧ ڧڧ֧ܧԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ. ڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ҧݧ "٧ѧԧا֧ߧ" ֧ѧݧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ է֧اѧߧڧ֧, ߧ ߧ ڧӧѧݧ ݧڧ ӧ٧ ڧ٧֧ߧڧ֧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧ ڧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧ C ֧ ڧݧ ڧߧ ֧ԧڧߧѧ, ѧߧѧ ڧݧ ާ֧ߧ[75]. ڧ֧ܧѧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ, ҧݧ֧ ֧֧ߧ ԧ֧ڧڧ ݧܧߧݧڧ ҧݧ֧ާ էڧߧѧާڧܧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ (ѧߧ).

ԧ֧ڧڧ֧ܧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ C ֧ӧߧѧѧݧߧ ӧڧէ, ܧѧܧ ߧ ݧاڧݧ, ߧѧڧާ֧, էѧ ֧ߧѧߧ է֧ݧ C ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ڧԧѧ֧ ا ڧߧڧڧѧݧߧ էԧ, ѧާ֧ݧߧ ݧ ѧӧߧ֧ߧڧ ܧݧѧڧ֧ܧڧާ ѧէڧڧߧߧާ ڧڧ֧ܧڧާ էէѧާ. . ߧ ѧӧ֧էݧڧӧ ٧ѧާ֧ڧ, ԧӧ ٧ߧѧާ֧ߧڧ ѧҧ է֧ݧ "֧էڧ٧֧ާߧާ" (1949), : "֧էڧ٧֧ާߧާ ܧѧ٧ѧݧ C ӧڧݧ ѧڧ ܧڧ֧ C ѧߧӧ ҧ֧ ԧէѧӧ, ѧߧӧ ֧ѧݧߧ, ֧ ֧ۧ٧ѧا֧, էڧѧݧԧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ ٧֧ާݧ֧ ܧݧڧާѧ, ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ѧا֧ߧڧ֧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ ާѧ֧ڧѧݧߧ ާڧ ӧ֧֧, ҧ֧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ֧էߧڧ֧ӧ, ҧ֧ ԧѧߧڧڧӧѧڧ ѧӧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧ ֧է֧ݧ ڧ ѧէާڧߧڧѧڧӧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ ԧѧߧڧѧާ"[76]. ԧ֧ڧڧ էѧߧ ѧҧѧܧߧ ڧڧܧ-ܧݧߧ ѧߧӧ, ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ , ߧ ܧ ڧէ ڧݧ ڧߧ ڧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧڧ, ֧ӧѧѧ֧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧ էߧԧ ڧ ԧݧѧӧߧ ԧ֧֧ ѧާԧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ (ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ, ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ, ܧѧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ).

ӧ֧ ݧ֧էߧ֧ ٧ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧ է C " ѧܧ ѧߧڧ?" C է֧ݧ ԧӧڧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ էݧ ڧڧ: " - ڧ ֧ߧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ, ҧݧѧԧէѧ ֧ է֧ۧӧڧ֧ݧߧ ֧էѧ֧ ֧֧ ߧѧާ ӧ ӧ֧ ӧ֧ ԧ ا֧ߧߧ, ӧ ӧ֧ ާߧԧҧѧ٧ڧ ѧӧݧڧ ֧ ӧݧ֧ߧڧ, ܧ ݧ֧է֧ ާݧ֧ߧߧ ѧ٧֧էڧߧڧ, ߧ ݧڧ էݧ ԧ, ҧ ֧ ݧ ߧ, ߧѧܧݧܧ ֧ߧ ߧ ӧ٧ѧߧ."[77]. ڧܧݧ֧ߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ, -ӧڧէڧާާ, -- "ݧ" ԧ֧ڧڧ. ݧ ԧ֧ڧڧ֧ܧԧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ ӧѧاߧ ҧ֧ܧ ӧݧ ڧڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ڧ ӧݧڧ (ڧܧݧ ٧ѧاէ֧ߧڧ, ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ѧߧާѧڧ). ڧڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ( ݧڧڧ, ߧѧڧާ֧, էӧݧߧ ֧ڧڧ֧ܧڧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧) ާԧ ާڧӧѧ էѧߧ ݧߧ ۧڧӧ ҧѧ٧ߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ݧ, ܧ էڧߧѧާڧܧ ҧѧ٧ ӧѧاѧ֧ ߧѧѧڧӧѧߧڧ ݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧߧ ѧ, ٧ѧܧߧާ֧ߧ ҧ֧ާߧ ѧڧڧܧѧڧ ԧ ݧ.

ҧ֧ߧߧ ڧߧ֧֧ߧ ڧڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ܧ ӧ٧ߧڧܧѧ ֧֧էߧ ٧ߧѧ, ߧ ܧѧ, ԧѧߧڧߧ ݧѧ. ֧֧ڧ֧ܧ ާݧڧާ ѧܧڧ ֧֧էߧ ٧ߧ, ܧ ާԧ ҧ ڧ, ֧ ڧ ٧ߧ ڧݧ ѧ֧ѧݧ, ڧ ѧ٧ԧѧߧڧڧӧѧڧ[78]. ߧ֧ߧڧ էӧާ ߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ҧѧ٧ ڧڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ ֧ ߧ ڧߧ, ܧѧ ӧݧ֧ߧڧ ֧֧էߧ ڧݧ ڧ٧ӧէߧ ( ܧѧܧ- ֧֧ߧ ѧߧѧݧ ӧڧߧ ڧߧާ֧ߧ ڧߧѧߧӧԧ ߧܧ), ܧ ܧѧ ҧ ߧߧ ߧѧէ֧اߧ ڧܧڧ֧ ӧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ. ާ ѧާ ݧ ڧڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ( ڧէ֧ѧݧ اէ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ڧڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧާ, ڧݧ ԧ֧ڧڧ֧ܧާ ѧߧӧ) ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ҧѧ٧ ֧ݧ֧ߧ, ڧ ڧ ֧ߧէӧ ӧ֧ߧ֧ ڧܧڧ֧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ, էڧߧѧާڧܧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ, ԧѧߧڧ٧ " ҧѧ٧ էҧڧ" ѧާԧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ[79]. ԧӧ ԧѧߧڧ (ާ֧اէ ܧѧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧާ ѧ֧ѧݧѧާ[80]) ҧӧ ٧էѧߧڧ ҧԧ ܧݧѧ, ڧݧ ڧ ڧڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ (ߧѧ٧ӧ֧ ڧ ѧܧا ԧӧާ). ߧ, ܧѧ ѧӧڧݧ, ӧߧ֧ߧߧ ߧ֧էߧէߧ, ߧ֧ۧڧӧ ܧߧ ӧݧ ܧѧ ҧ ڧ֧ߧѧާ ӧ٧ާ֧ߧڧ, ܧ ߧѧѧ ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ֧ݧ֧ ҧѧ٧ߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ݧ. ڧާ֧ էҧߧԧ է C ҧѧ ѧ٧ѧܧ ԧѧߧڧ, ܧ ҧ ֧էӧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ֧էݧا֧ ڧѧ ѧӧ ܧѧ "٧ߧ ҧҧ, ӧ٧ѧڧާէ֧ۧӧڧ, ֧֧ݧ֧֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ, ާڧӧѧߧߧ ѧ٧ߧ ڧӧڧݧڧ٧ѧڧߧߧ ܧݧߧ ާڧѧ ҧݧ֧֧ߧߧ ѧ ӧ֧ԧ ݧ֧ԧ֧ߧէѧߧ-ӧڧ٧ڧߧ֧ܧ ѧܧӧܧ"[81]. ҧ ݧѧ C ѧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ާ ܧӧѧ٧ڧԧѧߧڧ (ݧڧߧڧ ܧߧѧ ڧݧ ܧߧѧܧ ѧ٧ߧէߧ ӧݧ֧ߧڧ, ݧѧҧ, ߧ֧ӧߧ ѧڧ ڧ ܧߧڧߧѧݧߧ ѧܧ ٧֧ާߧ ӧ֧ߧ[82]). է֧ ڧڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ݧѧҧ ާݧ֧ߧ ֧էѧӧݧ ҧ ܧ֧ "ߧ", ߧ֧ܧڧ ڧާӧݧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧާܧ, ܧ ݧܧѧݧڧ٧ terra incognita ҧѧ٧ߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ݧ.

ѧܧ ֧ӧߧѧѧݧߧ ӧ֧ާ ڧҧݧڧ٧ڧ֧ݧߧ ߧѧҧ ҧ֧ ֧ڧ ڧڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧.

ݧߧ֧ߧڧ֧ ֧ڧ ާا֧ ݧاڧ ѧߧѧݧڧ էڧߧѧާڧܧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ. ܧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ٧ѧݧا֧, ܧѧ ѧӧڧݧ, ҧ ڧ ӧڧڧ ߧڧާѧߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ. ѧاէ էҧߧ ڧ ӧڧڧ, ڧݧ ߧڧާѧߧڧ ѧߧӧ ާڧ֧ ӧ֧ҧѧ٧ߧ ѧ, ݧ֧ۧ ڧݧ ݧѧ٧ާ, ܧ ܧݧѧէӧѧ ߧӧߧ ܧѧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ѧѧܧ֧ڧڧܧ ԧ ڧݧ ڧߧԧ ڧڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ҧѧ٧. ѧڧާ֧, ֧էߧ֧ӧ֧ܧӧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧѧէߧ ֧ӧ֧ߧ ӧ ݧڧѧݧڧ ֧٧ܧ ӧѧا֧ߧߧ ֧ڧڧܧ ߧڧާѧߧڧ ѧߧӧ, ܧѧ-: ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ ܧѧ ѧߧӧ է֧ݧߧ ֧ (ݧܧ), ߧ֧٧ѧݧߧ֧ߧߧ "ާ֧اߧԧ" ѧߧӧ, էߧէߧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ݧܧ, ڧ֧ߧѧڧ ߧ ֧ѧݧߧާ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ, ߧڧ֧ݧߧ ѧէާڧߧڧѧڧӧߧ-֧ڧڧѧݧߧԧ է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ѧߧ, ܧէ էӧڧԧѧݧ ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧڧ; էӧڧاߧ ߧڧާ, ֧֧ݧ֧֧ߧڧ ҧӧ ާڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ[83]. ާ ӧݧߧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ҧѧ٧ߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ݧ֧ ѧӧܧѧާ էѧا ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧާ ܧڧڧ֧ߧѧާ, ܧ ӧ٧ѧߧ էڧߧѧާڧܧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ.


֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ էا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ѧߧӧ


էا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ֧ѧݧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ էӧ֧ԧѧ֧, ܧѧ ѧӧڧݧ, ߧѧڧҧݧڧ ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ ԧݧҧܧڧ ѧߧާѧڧ. էѧߧߧ ݧѧ ާ֧ߧ ԧӧڧ ѧӧߧާߧ ֧ӧӧѧߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ܧ ܧѧ ҧ اڧӧ ѧ٧ӧڧӧѧ ӧߧ էا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ٧ѧܧߧѧ. ܧ ٧֧ߧڧ ڧ٧֧ߧڧ ԧ֧ߧ֧٧ڧ ҧѧ٧ ާاߧ ܧݧѧڧڧڧӧѧ, էڧӧѧ է֧ݧߧ ѧӧѧ, է֧ݧߧާ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ڧݧ է ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ էߧԧ ڧѧ֧ݧ. ӧ֧ߧ C ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ "ӧѧ", ֧ѧݧߧԧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ, ܧ ҧݧ ڧݧ ڧߧ ֧֧ߧ ٧ѧߧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ֧ ڧݧ ڧѧ֧ݧ֧[84]. ӧߧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ڧ٧֧ߧڧ ֧ӧڧߧ ӧ٧ѧڧާէ֧ۧӧڧ ֧ѧݧߧԧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧ էا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧: ѧ, ܧ ٧ڧ XVIII ӧ֧ܧ ڧߧߧڧާѧާ ڧ էا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ѧߧӧ ҧݧڧߧӧ ӧѧݧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ "֧ӧ֧" (֧ا) ""[85]. ݧ֧է֧, ֧֧ ӧߧ էا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ާԧ ҧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ާ֧ ڧݧԧڧ٧ڧӧѧߧ ҧҧ֧ߧ, ڧ ӧ٧ ֧ѧݧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧӧ ާا֧ ҧ ٧ѧ֧ӧѧߧ ӧݧ ݧڧ է ӧڧ ݧѧߧէѧߧ-ܧݧߧ ڧݧ ݧѧߧէѧߧ-ާڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧާ֧. ѧܧ, ߧѧڧާ֧, ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧߧ ާڧ էӧߧܧ ѧէҧ[86].

է ڧާ ߧӧߧާ ӧߧާ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ѧݧا֧ էݧߧڧ֧ݧߧ. ٧ڧاէ֧ ߧ ߧڧާѧߧڧ էا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ҧѧ٧ ܧѧ ѧܧڧӧߧԧ, ѧԧ֧ڧӧߧԧ ߧѧѧݧ, ܧ -ӧ֧ާ ֧ҧѧ٧֧ ܧ ӧڧڧ ֧ѧݧߧԧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ. է֧ ݧ֧٧ߧ ӧ֧ ѧߧѧݧԧڧ ѧէӧ-ѧܧӧ ڧܧӧ C ߧ ڧާ֧ ֧֧է ѧէ ѧܧܧ ݧѧڧڧ٧ާ ѧէѧ ާѧߧڧ٧ާ. ѧէ ާѧߧڧ٧ާ ֧էݧѧԧѧݧ ӧ֧֧ߧߧ ڧߧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ڧ ֧ܧڧӧѧߧڧ C էާڧߧڧӧѧ ߧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ݧѧ ѧէ, ֧ԧ ӧڧ, "֧ۧ٧ѧ", ܧ ڧԧڧӧѧ ާ է֧ݧߧ "ݧѧۧէ" ("slides")[87]. ާѧߧڧ֧ܧ ڧܧӧ ѧ ا ߧ ҧ ڧӧݧاߧ ڧէ, ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ߧ֧ ֧֧էڧ. ѧާ ԧѧߧڧ ѧէ ѧѧ֧ݧߧ ٧ѧ֧ӧӧѧݧڧ, ҧ է֧ܧߧ ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ֧֧է. ާ ԧ, ѧէ ާѧߧڧ٧ާ ߧ ѧ٧ڧݧ ֧է֧ӧӧѧӧڧ ڧ ڧڧ֧ܧ ֧ԧݧߧ, ֧ߧ֧ѧߧߧ ҧѧߧ ѧէ, ӧܧݧڧݧ ڧ ӧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ ܧ ܧѧ ԧѧߧڧߧ ݧ֧ާ֧ߧ. ѧܧߧ֧, ѧާ ۧӧ ѧէ ާѧߧڧ٧ާ ֧էݧѧԧѧݧ ٧էѧߧڧ ܧݧڧӧڧӧѧߧڧ ڧݧݧ٧ڧ ڧ ԧާߧ, ҧ֧ܧߧ֧ߧ ֧ ާڧӧѧߧڧ է֧ݧߧ ӧڧէӧ ֧ ٧ާ֧֧ӧڧէߧ ݧڧߧڧ ԧݧߧ էا֧[88]. ڧާ֧ߧ ѧܧا ާاߧ ֧էѧӧڧ ާ֧ѧߧڧ٧ ߧܧڧߧڧӧѧߧڧ ѧܧڧӧߧԧ էا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ҧѧ٧. ѧߧڧ էا֧ӧ֧ߧߧԧ ֧ѧݧߧԧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ ѧߧӧ ߧ֧֧ܧڧާ ѧܧڧ֧ܧ ڧѧ. ѧ էا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ "ӧڧӧѧ֧" ֧ҧ ֧ѧݧߧ ߧڧާ ҧѧ٧ӧ ܧѧԧѧڧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧԧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ. ڧҧڧէߧ էا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ֧ߧ ڧݧߧ ѧڧ֧, ӧ٧ߧڧܧѧ֧ ڧݧݧ٧ڧ ֧ԧ ԧާߧ, էѧا ֧ݧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ާ֧ է֧ۧӧڧ ٧ѧߧڧާѧ֧ ֧ѧݧߧ ߧ֧ҧݧ ֧ڧڧ.

ѧѧܧ֧ߧ ڧާ֧ C ާѧ ߧէ֧ ݧѧߧӧ "֧ӧ֧ߧԧ". ѧߧӧ "֧ӧ֧ߧԧ" ߧ֧֧ ֧ҧ ާߧ ڧէ֧ݧԧڧ֧ܧ ߧѧԧ٧ܧ[89] , , ѧާ ӧѧ֧ ܧѧ ӧ֧ҧѧ٧ߧѧ ڧէ֧ݧԧڧ ӧ֧ԧ ާѧߧ. ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ "֧ӧ֧ߧԧ" ֧էѧӧݧ ҧ ݧڧڧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ. ѧ, ֧ӧ֧ߧԧ ܧاѧѧ ֧ԧ ֧ ֧ڧէڧ֧ܧ ܧѧ ҧ ߧѧѧ է ߧ էԧ ӧҧѧӧѧ ا֧էߧ ڧ ѧߧӧ ӧڧ "֧էѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧", ܧ ѧӧާѧڧ֧ܧ ާ֧ߧ ѧ ߧӧߧ ѧѧާ֧ ڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧. اѧڧ ڧݧ ѧڧ֧ߧڧ ާ֧ߧ֧ է֧ۧӧڧ, ߧӧߧ է֧ۧӧڧ ާѧߧ ֧֧ߧߧ ܧߧ֧ߧڧ֧ ڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ. է֧اѧ֧ݧߧѧ ܧ ާѧߧ ڧާ֧֧ ӧߧ ݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧ߧ, ֧ ѧާ ܧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ է֧ۧӧڧ ߧ֧֧էӧ֧ߧߧ ٧ѧӧڧڧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ ֧֧էӧڧا֧ߧڧ ֧֧ӧڧ ԧ֧֧. ڧ֧ާ ӧ٧ѧڧާӧ٧ѧߧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ "֧ӧ֧ߧԧ" ֧էѧӧݧ֧ ҧ ߧѧݧا֧ߧڧ ҧѧ٧ڧߧԧ, ާѧ֧ڧߧܧԧ ֧ѧݧߧԧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ (ߧ֧ܧѧ ѧ ֧ѧݧߧ ߧ֧اܧ ԧҧ֧ߧڧ) ԧѧ٧է ҧݧ֧ ݧӧߧԧ ֧ӧ ާ֧ѧڧ٧ڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ ֧ߧѧݧߧ-ѧ٧ڧѧܧڧ ֧֧ ݧߧ. ڧҧ֧ݧ ֧ӧ֧ߧԧ, , ݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ happy end ާѧߧ, ڧҧ ѧ ҧѧ ֧ӧ֧ߧԧ ܧѧ ҧ ߧߧ ֧ާڧ ѧӧڧ ҧѧ٧ ܧاѧ֧ ֧ԧ ֧[90].

ԧ ڧާ֧ C ާѧ ѧߧ ѧܧ "ѧާ". է֧ ѧߧӧ ֧֧ӧߧ, ܧާ ҧ֧ ܧߧ ҧ֧٧ߧѧէ֧اߧ ܧݧ֧ڧ ԧݧѧӧߧ ԧ֧, ٧֧ާݧ֧ާ֧ ., ѧ٧ѧѧ֧ է ԧާߧ ѧ٧ާ֧, ߧ ڧާ֧֧ ԧ ٧ѧާܧߧ, ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧߧ ӧӧߧ ݧԧڧ. ѧߧӧ ѧާܧ, ߧѧҧ, ߧ֧ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ, ԧѧ ܧѧ ҧ ߧѧӧڧѧ֧ ҧݧѧܧ ߧѧ ֧֧ӧߧ֧. ߧ, ֧ӧڧէߧ, ӧߧ ާ֧ѧڧ٧ڧߧ ֧ڧէڧ֧ܧ ާ֧ߧ֧ ӧ ܧѧ֧ӧ ٧ѧӧڧڧާ ߧ֧ߧڧ ѧߧӧ ֧֧ӧߧ. ӧ٧ ڧ էӧ ѧߧ ާ٧ڧ֧ݧߧ, ԧѧߧڧ ާ֧اէ ߧڧާ ӧ֧֧ߧߧ ѧ٧ާ ܧѧ ҧ էѧا ܧݧ٧ѧ ڧ ߧ֧֧էӧ֧ߧߧԧ ӧڧڧ .[91]. ݧڧڧ ѧߧӧ ݧѧߧӧ, ѧߧӧ ѧܧ ԧ֧ߧ֧ڧ֧ܧ C ڧ٧ڧէߧ, ѧ֧ݧ֧ߧߧ. ѧߧӧ ѧާܧ ѧߧӧ ֧֧ӧߧ ԧѧߧڧ֧ܧ ߧ ֧էڧߧڧާ. ֧٧ѧӧ֧֧ߧߧ ѧާԧ ާѧߧ ߧѧԧݧէߧ ҧѧ٧ ܧѧ ҧ ڧݧݧڧ֧ ѧާ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ߧ֧٧ѧӧ֧֧ߧߧ ڧާ ѧܧ.


֧ܧߧާڧܧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ҧէ֧ԧ. ާ֧ ٧ѧܧݧ֧ߧڧ


ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ߧӧ ԧѧߧڧߧ էڧڧݧڧߧ C ԧ֧ܧߧާڧܧ C ҧӧ֧ ѧڧ֧ߧڧ ܧߧ֧ܧ, ܧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧. ߧ է֧ݧѧ֧ ܧߧ֧ڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ڧߧڧڧѧݧߧ ܧ. ֧ܧߧާڧܧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ާ֧ ֧ڧ֧ ا ӧڧѧݧߧާ ѧߧӧѧާ ڧߧѧߧӧ-ܧߧާڧ֧ܧڧާ ܧѧާ[92]. ާ ֧ݧ֧ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧߧ ܧߧڧӧѧߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ާا֧ ѧ ѧܧѧݧߧ ٧ѧէѧ֧.

֧ܧߧާڧ֧ܧڧ ѧߧӧ ֧էѧӧݧ ҧ ֧ӧڧէߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧݧ "ԧ֧ԧѧڧէߧ" ܧߧܧ. ҧѧ٧ ݧҧܧԧ ԧ, ڧܧ֧ѧߧܧԧ ާڧ, ߧէܧ֧ѧߧܧ էԧ[93] ֧ ߧ ڧߧ, ܧѧ ֧ڧ֧ާ ߧ ݧӧߧ ܧѧ (ܧߧާڧ֧ܧԧ) ٧ߧѧߧڧ ҧҧ֧ߧߧ ѧާ ѧէڧڧߧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ. "ܧݧܧ" ާڧ ٧ѧѧߧ֧ ٧ѧէѧߧߧ ӧ֧ߧ, ܧ ѧ٧ާ֧ѧ ߧӧߧ ާ٧ѧܧݧ֧ߧڧ, ݧا֧ߧڧ ٧ѧܧߧާ֧ߧ. ݧڧڧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧܧ ( ԧ֧ܧߧާڧܧ ҧ٧ѧߧ ӧڧ اէ֧ߧڧ֧ ڧާ֧ߧߧ ܧݧѧڧ֧ܧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧܧ) ѧէڧڧߧߧѧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧѧ ܧѧ, ѧէڧڧߧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧէڧߧѧ ߧ էڧܧ էѧߧߧ ݧѧ ֧ߧڧ ѧާڧ ԧ֧ܧߧާڧ֧ܧڧ էڧ.

֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ, -ӧڧէڧާާ, ާاߧ "ѧ٧ӧѧڧӧѧ", "ӧѧڧӧѧ", "ڧܧڧӧݧ" ӧݧߧ ٧ߧѧ֧ݧߧ, ֧ݧ ݧ֧ߧڧ ֧ԧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ӧۧ ֧ܧ. ֧ ާا֧ ڧէڧ, ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ, ߧ ֧ѧݧߧ, ߧ էԧӧݧ֧ߧߧ ӧڧѧݧߧ ݧ. ԧ֧ܧߧާڧܧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ٧էѧߧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ٧-ܧѧѧݧڧ٧ѧ ڧݧ ҧѧ٧-ѧߧާѧ, ܧ ٧ѧڧܧڧ ֧ ѧާ ܧ ܧԧߧڧڧӧߧ ҧ֧ܧߧ֧ߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧߧӧ.




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[1] .: ݧڧѧէ . ާ ڧڧ. ٧ҧѧߧߧ ѧҧ. ., 1987; ا. ӧ֧ߧߧ ާڧܧ. ., 1994 է.

[2] ݧڧѧէ . ާ ڧڧ... . 37.

[3] ѧ ا. . 38.

[4] ѧ ا. . 45.

[5] Bachelard G. La potique de l' espace. Paris, 1957.

[6] Questions Michel Foucault sur la gographie // Foucault M. Dits et crits. 1954-1988. III. 1976-1979. Paris, 1994.

[7] Des questions de Michel Foucault "Hrodote" // Ibid.

[8] Questions Michel Foucault sur la gographie... P. 40.

[9] Espace, savoir et pouvoir // Ibid. IV. 1980-1988. P. 286.

[10] Ibid. P. 271-272.

[11] Deleuze G., Guattari F. Rhizome. Introduction. Paris, 1976.

[12] Ibid. P. 62.

[13] ֧ݧ֧ ., ӧѧѧ . ѧܧ ڧݧڧ. ., ., 1998.

[14] ѧ ا. . 110.

[15] ѧ ا. . 124.

[16] էԧ . . ѧا֧ߧڧ ާ. ѧߧէѧߧ ާڧ ڧݧڧ. ., 1995. . 77-78.

[17] ѧ ا. . 81-83.

[18] ѧ ا. . 143.

[19] ѧ ا. . 263.

[20] ѧ ا. . 275.

[21] ѧӧѧէܧѧ . . " ߧ֧ҧ٧էѧߧߧ اѧاէ ѧߧӧ" (ڧܧ ѧߧӧڧ ӧ֧ӧ . . ѧߧէ֧ݧѧާ) // ڧݧڧ. 1991. 11; ѧѧӧڧ . . "֧ݧӧ֧ ާڧԧڧڧ": ߧݧԧڧ ާ֧ߧ // ѧ ا. 1997. 7.

[22] ѧӧѧէܧѧ . . ܧѧ. . . 27.

[23] ѧ ا.

[24] ѧѧӧڧ . . ܧѧ. . . 77.

[25] ѧ ا.

[26] Daniels St. Place and Geographical Imagination // Geography. 1992. # 4 (77). P. 311. . ѧ ا ߧӧߧ ҧڧҧݧڧԧѧڧ ֧ާ.

[27] Ibid. P. 312.

[28] .: Ibid. P. 320.

[29] .: ӧ . . ѧ ڧ֧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧѧ ߧѧܧ ڧ. ., 1990; ѧާڧ . . ٧ߧѧߧڧ ֧ާݧ // ٧ӧ֧ڧ . ֧ڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧѧ. 1995. 1.

[30] ѧާڧ . . ܧѧ. .

[31] ѧ ا. . 141.

[32] ѧާڧ . . ҧѧ ѧߧ // ٧ӧ֧ڧ . ֧ڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧѧ. 1997. 4.

[33] ѧ ا. . 140.

[34] ѧ ا. . 141.

[35] ֧ާѧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ ڧ. ҧѧ ѧߧ: ѧߧӧ ڧ / ӧ.-. . . ѧާڧ, . . ѧާڧ; ҧ. ֧. . . ѧާڧߧ. ., 1994.

[36] էԧ ѧݧ֧ڧ. ڧѧߧڧ, ڧݧ ֧ԧѧڧ "ܧ է" // ֧ާѧڧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ ڧ...

[37] ѧާڧ ާڧڧ. ܧߧާڧ֧ܧѧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ ݧڧ // ӧѧ ߧ. 1997. 5-6 (26-27).

[38] .: ӧڧܧ . . ݧߧѧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ ܧѧ ڧߧ֧֧ѧڧ ֧ڧڧ // ܧߧާڧ֧ܧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ ٧ѧҧ֧اߧ ѧ. . 13. ҧݧ֧ާ ҧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ. ., 1993; ѧԧѧߧܧڧ . . ѧߧէѧ ܧݧ // ҧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ߧѧܧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ. 1997. 1, 2.

[39] ӧڧܧ . . ܧѧ. . . 84-85.

[40] ѧ ا. . 89.

[41] .: ѧ ا. . 90.

[42] ֧ߧާڧ . ܧӧܧڧ էߧ֧ӧߧڧ. ., 1997. . 45, 51, 71, 100, 147, 159.

[43] ֧ӧܧѧ . . ѧ ӧ֧. ., 1995. . 53.

[44] .: ѧ ا. . 54.

[45] ֧ߧާڧ . ܧѧ. . . 75.

[46] .: ֧ӧܧѧ . . ܧѧ. . . 60-64.

[47] . ѧܧا ҧѧا֧ߧڧ ާҧ֧ ܧ ާ֧ѧڧ٧ڧܧ է֧֧ܧڧӧ: ܧ . ާ ٧. ѧާ֧ܧ ߧ ݧ "ާ֧ߧ ٧". ., 1997. . 629.

[48] ֧ݧ ݧ֧ѧߧէ. ѧߧܧ֧ѧߧܧڧ ܧ֧ // էا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ اߧѧ. 1997. 16. . 12.

[49] ѧ ا. . 13.

[50] ѧ ٧ѧݧڧߧ. ܧݧ ѧڧ֧ߧߧ ݧ // էا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ اߧѧ. 1997. 16; ӧԧ֧ߧڧ. ݧ ѧߧӧ. ѧԧާ֧ߧ ܧݧ ѧڧ֧ܧߧ ڧѧߧڧ // ѧ ا.

[51] ѧ ا.

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[59] ѧ ا. . 73.

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