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Скачать бесплатно! Научная работа на тему WORLD OF CAR DIAGNOSTICS. Аудитория: ученые, педагоги, деятели науки, работники образования, студенты (18-50). Minsk, Belarus. Research paper. Agreement.

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Опубликовано в библиотеке: 2018-09-09

by Alexander EIDELMAN, Cand. Sc. (Tech.), senior researcher, Scientific Research Center of Automobile and Automotor Technology (NAMI)

In late 2001 our Institute hosted the 1st International Exhibition entitled "Instruments and Methods of Automobile and Engine Testing". A measure of the importance of this forum was demonstrated by the list of its participants which included such truly international leaders in this field as the German PAT GmbH, ESA Messtechnik GmbH and the American NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS as well as this country's leading R&D centers and hardware and software producers specializing in this field.

The central novelty exhibited by the ESA Messtechnik GmbH was a Traveller Pluss testing complex. It incorporated all sorts of high- tech sensors-potentiometers, inductive, techno- and thermoresistance and piezoelectric-for measuring deformations, angular and linear displacements, accelerations, temperatures and stresses occurring in different automobile parts and components as well as different electrical and other parameters.

Colleagues from the NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS, USA, demonstrated sets of instruments for what are called vibro- accoustic tests of car engines, fuel tanks, brakes and other components. These data are picked up and analyzed in an automatic mode which is followed by appropriate recommendations.

A display located next to the American one belonged to the Ukrainian firm Spetspribor; it featured optical-electric and mechanical measuring instruments for diagnostics of the ecological and technological parameters of automobiles.

But the most "representative" section of the show belonged to the hosts - the NAMI Center. The really impressive list of entries covered practically everything one can think of for car inspection in general and checks of each and all of its parts and components in particular. This being so, let me mention just a few which turned out to be in the focus of attention of both domestic and foreign specialists.

As we all know, in recent time international public attention has been increasingly drawn to the problem of environment-friendly transport - transport facilities pro-

Pages. 63

ducing little or no pollution. A team led by Vasiliy Zvonov, Dr. Sc. (Tech.) have come up with a set of instruments for diagnostics and control of car exhausts and these devices are already in commercial production at the Spetstechnika Plant in Lugansk. One of these devices is a sensor Lux TM-1 for measuring methane and propane pollution in the air. If and when this kind of pollution is detected, a thermocatalytic sensor of the device goes into action. It generates an electric pulse which is transformed into audio signals-monotonous low beeps stand for zero pollution and more frequent and higher tone signals give you an appropriate early warning. As compared with similar alarms, the aforesaid one has important advantages: it is compact (length-120, width-38 and height-78 mm) a mass of only 250 g, automatic tuning and practically instant readiness (1-2 s.) after switching it on. What is more, the sensor switches itself off automatically if the level of pollution is abnormally high, which helps prolong its service life. Lux TM-1 not only detects fuel leaks of automobiles running on natural gas, but can provide early warning to staffs working in premises with likely gas leaks, mines and underground tunnels, etc.

Another set of instruments demonstrated by NAMI was also related to problems of air pollution-it measures levels of exhausts in cars and trucks with diesel engines. The devices- IDS-3C and IDP-2, perform the following functions. The first, packed with microprocessors, functions both in an autonomous mode and/or coupled with a computer. It measures levels of exhausts of all kinds of diesel engines (railway, marine and automobile) in stationary conditions. The principle of its operation consists in the fact that diesel exhausts are "pierced" with a beam of light, the transparency factor is measured and the signals from a photo and thermo cells are displayed in a digital format. The device is chiefly ment for operation in an automatic mode (as different from its analogue). It takes care of its own calibration, searches for peak fume levels at transitional operation regimes, does the diagnostics of the optical channel and switches itself off when the optics become too clogged. The tester can be operated by remote control, including a personal computer, and the measurements can be pre-programmed. It fits the international ISO 11614 specifications and is included into the state registers of the Russian Federation and also Ukraine and the Republic of Belarus.

The other device of the same class - IDP-2 - can be used for on-the-spot control of the "levels of harmfulness" of diesel exhausts and also for diagnostics of the fuel system and the engine as a whole. This "smoke meter" is the most effective instrument of its kind among all others available in Russia and other CIS states. It can be handled by a single operators, being small in size (280х295х55 mm) and lightweight (1.9 kg). And the measurements are automated to a maximum extent with the application of microcomputers and original software. It can be used with practically any type of cars and trucks, including those with vertical exhausts, thanks to a rotating intake hose.

There was considerable interest among specialists, especially officials of the RF Ministry of the Interior, in a flaw detector EST 2000 - an indicator of metal discontinuity. It can detect defects in the surface structure of metal parts such as "tampering" with markings on the car body, hidden welding seams and non-ferrous metal inclusions into steel, etc. The device detects hidden "foreign" plates, rivets, straightenings, local "heatings" of car body sections, and "pluggings over" of factory numbers with tin or other metals.

The technical potentialities of the instrument are really interesting. With its miniature size (175х80х25 mm) and weight of only 300 g, it is capable of continuous operation for 6 hours, testing layers of metal from 0.25 to 3.0 mm

Pages. 64

and at a distance of up to 1.0 mm (thickness of the coat of paint). The area of inspection amounts to 7х15 mm.

Another NAMI novelty, produced in conjunction with the IRKON R&D firm, was demonstrated by Dr. Vladimir Petrushov of our center. The device is ment for testing tyres and measuring their resistance to rolling both on testing stands and in difficult road conditions.

The measuring system is based on sets of instruments Irkon - 11 and Irkon -111. Without going into technical details, it should be pointed out that they make it possible to use conventional equipment so that manufacturers of tyres do not have to spend money on special stands.

All of the apparatuses involved and the new method as a whole have been tested at testing sites and R&D institutes and are being commercially produced at the Nizhnekamskshina plant. The ultimate recognition of the new system are a diploma and a medal awarded at the International Exhibition - High Technologies, Innovations, Investments - held in St. Petersburg in 2001.

And now let's take a look at yet another technical novelty which has received international acclaim.

This is a microchip system of engine control for cars with fuel- injection engines. It uses data control blocks on the basis of 16-bit microcontrollers produced by the SOATE (Stary Oskol) and CHNPP Elara (Cheboksary) firms. All the necessary software and target conversion programs have been developed in Russia. The whole system is already in commercial production and is supplied to the Gorky Automobile Plants. Work is nearing completion on its installation on new UAZ and Moskvich cars.

Displays of other Russian manufacturers also contained many interesting novelties. The OKTAWA+MS Company (Moscow), for example, exhibited a set of instruments OKTAWA-101 А, В, С for acoustic and vibration measurements and different types of microphones probes, pressure sensors, acoustic calibrators, etc.

A unique instrument was demonstrated by the ELARA Company (Cheboksary). This ELARA scanner-tester, which requires no additional cartridges, can "read off" all sorts of engine defects and "dumps off" all of the accumulated data into the computer memory. It scans a range of more than 100 parameters and controls the performance of the actuating mechanisms.

A broad range of entries was presented by the META R&D Firm (Moscow). These include what we call testing lines-stationary (LTK-C), mobile (LTK-M) and also those in containers and mobile ones (LTK-P) mounted on GAZ-2705 trucks. And experts were attracted even more by certain other entries, including multicom- ponent AUTOTEST gas analyzers for measurements of CO-CH- СО 3 2 levels, portable smoke meters META-01 MP, different testers for brake systems, headlights and steering gear, universal brake testing stands STM-3500, - 6000, - 1200, auto balance VA-15C and even alcohol level testers for drivers.

Summit it up, it would be quite fair to conclude that the show was worth its money. Suffice it to say that it was attended by more than 400 specialists, including heads of the firms whose products were on display, and there were also important talks producing mutually advantageous contracts.

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