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Yogyakarta (pop. 427,573) is a city in central Java, in Indonesia. It is one of the principal centers of Javanese culture. Yogyakarta is centered around the sultan's kraton (palace). The city has a distinct and traditional Javanese character. From 1946 to 1949, it was the capital of the Indonesian Republic. The city is the capital of the Special Territory of Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta is familiarly known as Yogya. It was formerly spelled Jogjakarta and Djokjakarta. The city is situated on the south coast of central Java. The area of the territory is 1,224 square miles (3,169 square kilometers). The city is situated about 18 miles (30 kilometers) south of the active volcano Mount Merapi, and is about the same distance inland from the coast. Through the center of Yogyakarta runs Jalan Malioboro, a bustling avenue lined with handicraft shops and restaurants. At the center is the extensive kraton of the sultan, and the royal pleasure gardens. The Sono Budoyo Museum, established in 1935 by the Java Institute, houses prehistoric artifacts, Hindu-Javanese statues, bronzes, and puppets. Other attractions include the bird market, the batik painters' colony, the dancing school of Prince Tejokusumo, and the army museum. The Batik Research Institute offers free guided tours to see the process of batik making. Most of Yogyakarta's people are Muslims. The main language of the city and the territory is Javanese. The people of Yogyakarta take a special interest in traditional Javanese cultural activities. The favorite pastimes are the wayang kulit (shadow puppet theater) and the music of the gamelan. The main educational institution is the Gajah Mada University. There is also an Islamic university, the Universitas Islam Indonesia. Yogyakarta has the Library of the Hatta Foundation. The city has several academies of art. Economy. Agricultural produce in the territory includes corn, peanuts, rice, and soybeans. Plantations produce cacao, coconuts, coffee, cotton, kapok, pepper, rubber, tobacco, and vanilla. Farmers raise buffaloes, cows, goats, hogs, horses, and poultry. Batik is made by machine and hand. Other local crafts include weaving, silver engraving, and basketry. History. The Javanese Mataram kingdom in Java broke up in the 1700's due to Dutch pressure. There were then two sultanates in Central Java. One was Solo (now Surakarta). The other was Yogyakarta, which Sultan Hamengku Buwono I established in 1755. When the struggle for Indonesian independence began in 1945, Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX of Yogyakarta immediately declared his support for the nationalists. In January 1946, he invited the nationalist government to settle in Yogyakarta. Hamengku Buwono IX attained high office in the Indonesian government. In return for his loyalty, the government gave his capital Yogyakarta new status as a special territory. The sultan was made governor and was responsible directly to the president of Indonesia.

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